Security: November 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly

Current Affairs : Security: November 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
50                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
4. SECURITY 
4.1. INDIA'S ANNUAL RESOLUTION ON COUNTER-TERRORISM 
Why in news? 
India's annual resolution on the issue of counter-terrorism ”Measures to prevent terrorists from acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction” was adopted at United Nations. 
More about News 
• India is victim of state-sponsored cross-border terrorism, has been at the forefront in highlighting the serious 
threat to international peace and security emanating from acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by 
terrorist groups. 
• For this India tabled an annual resolution for 
‘Measures to prevent terrorists from 
acquiring weapons of mass destruction’. 
o It co-sponsored by over 75 countries and 
adopted by consensus in the First 
Committee of the UN General Assembly. 
o Through the resolution India has urged 
greater international co-operation to 
prevent terrorists from acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction and their 
delivery systems. 
• Also, First Committee of UN General 
Assembly adopted two resolutions which 
were sponsored by India: Convention on the 
Prohibition of the use of Nuclear Weapons' 
and Reducing Nuclear Danger' - under the 
Nuclear weapons' cluster. 
• UN resolution 1540 also obliges all states to 
refrain from supporting by any means non-
State actors from developing, acquiring, 
manufacturing, possessing, transporting, 
transferring or using nuclear, chemical or 
biological weapons and their means of 
delivery in terror affected countries. 
• According to the Institute for Economics and 
Peace’s Global Terrorism Index, 2020 ranks 
India as 8th in the world on a list of countries 
most affected by terrorism in 2019. 
India & Counter terrorism measures at 
international level 
• India has prioritised the adoption of an 
intergovernmental framework to combat 
terrorism. 
• Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC): It was established by UN Security Council resolution 1373 (2001), to 
implement measures intended to enhance their legal and institutional ability to counter terrorist activities at 
home, in their regions and around the world. 
• Global Counter-Terrorism Forum (GCTF): In 2011 US created the GCTF, an action-oriented platform outside 
the UN framework to foster effective multilateral cooperation in counter-terrorism. 
About Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) 
• WMD are atomic explosive weapons, radioactive material 
weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any 
weapons developed in the future which might have 
characteristics comparable in destructive effect to those of 
the atomic bomb or other weapons mentioned above. 
• WMDs constitute a class of weaponry with the potential to: 
o Produce in a single moment an enormous destructive 
effect capable to kill millions of civilians, jeopardize the 
natural environment; 
o Cause death or serious injury of people through toxic or 
poisonous chemicals; 
o Disseminate disease-causing organisms or toxins to 
harm or kill humans, animals or plants; 
• A number of multilateral treaties exist to outlaw several 
classes of WMDs. These treaties include: 
o Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) 
o Multilateral treaties targeting the proliferation, testing 
and achieving progress on the disarmament of nuclear 
weapons include the  
? Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear 
Weapons (NPT),  
? the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 
(TPNW),  
? the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The 
Atmosphere,  
? In Outer Space And Under Water, also known as 
the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT),  
? Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which 
was signed in 1996 but has yet to enter into force.  
o Several treaties also exist to prevent the proliferation of 
missiles and related technologies, which can be used as 
a vehicle to deliver WMD payloads like the Hague Code 
of Conduct (HCOC) and the Missile Technology Control 
Regime (MTCR). 
Page 2


 
50                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
4. SECURITY 
4.1. INDIA'S ANNUAL RESOLUTION ON COUNTER-TERRORISM 
Why in news? 
India's annual resolution on the issue of counter-terrorism ”Measures to prevent terrorists from acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction” was adopted at United Nations. 
More about News 
• India is victim of state-sponsored cross-border terrorism, has been at the forefront in highlighting the serious 
threat to international peace and security emanating from acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by 
terrorist groups. 
• For this India tabled an annual resolution for 
‘Measures to prevent terrorists from 
acquiring weapons of mass destruction’. 
o It co-sponsored by over 75 countries and 
adopted by consensus in the First 
Committee of the UN General Assembly. 
o Through the resolution India has urged 
greater international co-operation to 
prevent terrorists from acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction and their 
delivery systems. 
• Also, First Committee of UN General 
Assembly adopted two resolutions which 
were sponsored by India: Convention on the 
Prohibition of the use of Nuclear Weapons' 
and Reducing Nuclear Danger' - under the 
Nuclear weapons' cluster. 
• UN resolution 1540 also obliges all states to 
refrain from supporting by any means non-
State actors from developing, acquiring, 
manufacturing, possessing, transporting, 
transferring or using nuclear, chemical or 
biological weapons and their means of 
delivery in terror affected countries. 
• According to the Institute for Economics and 
Peace’s Global Terrorism Index, 2020 ranks 
India as 8th in the world on a list of countries 
most affected by terrorism in 2019. 
India & Counter terrorism measures at 
international level 
• India has prioritised the adoption of an 
intergovernmental framework to combat 
terrorism. 
• Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC): It was established by UN Security Council resolution 1373 (2001), to 
implement measures intended to enhance their legal and institutional ability to counter terrorist activities at 
home, in their regions and around the world. 
• Global Counter-Terrorism Forum (GCTF): In 2011 US created the GCTF, an action-oriented platform outside 
the UN framework to foster effective multilateral cooperation in counter-terrorism. 
About Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) 
• WMD are atomic explosive weapons, radioactive material 
weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any 
weapons developed in the future which might have 
characteristics comparable in destructive effect to those of 
the atomic bomb or other weapons mentioned above. 
• WMDs constitute a class of weaponry with the potential to: 
o Produce in a single moment an enormous destructive 
effect capable to kill millions of civilians, jeopardize the 
natural environment; 
o Cause death or serious injury of people through toxic or 
poisonous chemicals; 
o Disseminate disease-causing organisms or toxins to 
harm or kill humans, animals or plants; 
• A number of multilateral treaties exist to outlaw several 
classes of WMDs. These treaties include: 
o Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) 
o Multilateral treaties targeting the proliferation, testing 
and achieving progress on the disarmament of nuclear 
weapons include the  
? Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear 
Weapons (NPT),  
? the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 
(TPNW),  
? the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The 
Atmosphere,  
? In Outer Space And Under Water, also known as 
the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT),  
? Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which 
was signed in 1996 but has yet to enter into force.  
o Several treaties also exist to prevent the proliferation of 
missiles and related technologies, which can be used as 
a vehicle to deliver WMD payloads like the Hague Code 
of Conduct (HCOC) and the Missile Technology Control 
Regime (MTCR). 
 
51                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF): It was established in 2005 and endorsed by the 
General Assembly through the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in 2006. It aims to enhance 
coordination and coherence of counter-terrorism efforts of the United Nations system. 
• UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy: It is a unique global 
instrument to enhance national, regional and international 
efforts to counter terrorism, through its adoption in 2006. 
• Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, 
Separatism and Extremism: Adopted by SCO for 
maintenance of international peace and security and 
promotion of friendly relations and cooperation among 
States. India is member state of SCO. 
• BRICS counter-terrorism strategy: It is to complement and 
strengthen the existing bilateral and multilateral ties among 
the BRICS countries, and to make a meaningful contribution 
to the global efforts of preventing and combating the threat 
of terrorism. India is member state of BRICS. 
• Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism 
(CCIT): India had proposed it in UNGA far back in 1996 and 
wishes to highlight the importance and need for early 
finalization draft CCIT. 
• Financial Action Task Force (FATF): It is an international 
organisation that works towards establishing global 
standards for combating money laundering and terrorist financing. 
Counter terrorism measures in India at National Level 
• National Investigation Agency (NIA): It is created to probe terror attacks in the country, following the 26/11 terrorist 
attacks on Mumbai in 2008. 
• National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID): It is to interconnect security agencies of the Indian Government to gather and 
share intelligence data among them. 
• National Security Guard (NSG): It is a paramilitary force that is primarily responsible for counterterrorism and anti-
hijacking operations. 
• Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, (UAPA) 1967: Act provides for the more effective prevention of certain unlawful 
activities and for dealing with terrorist activities of individuals and associations. 
• Against financing of terrorism: Prevention of Money-Laundering (Amendment) Act, 2005, Indian Financial Intelligence 
Unit (FIU-IND) established to investigate cases of terror financing. 
4.2. BIO-TERRORISM 
Why in news? 
Parliamentary panel has highlighted the need for the government to have laws to counter bio-terrorism in its 
report ‘The Outbreak of Pandemic COVID-19 and its Management’. 
More about news 
• Earlier, Department of Health and Family Welfare, submitted a seven-point action plan that is needed to 
ensure security against biological weapons. 
o Action plan includes strengthening disease surveillance, training, capacity building, strengthening 
research and surveillance activities related to development of diagnostics, vaccines and drugs etc. 
• After deliberations with Parliamentary panel on action plan, it came to conclusion to formulate effective laws 
to counter bio-terrorism.  
o Moreover, adverse effects of COVID-19 pandemic have taught the lesson on the importance of controlling 
biological agents. 
About bio-terrorism 
• Bioterrorism is a planned and deliberate use of pathogenic strains of microorganisms such as bacteria, 
viruses, or their toxins to spread life-threatening diseases on a mass scale in order to devastate the population 
of an area. 
Page 3


 
50                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
4. SECURITY 
4.1. INDIA'S ANNUAL RESOLUTION ON COUNTER-TERRORISM 
Why in news? 
India's annual resolution on the issue of counter-terrorism ”Measures to prevent terrorists from acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction” was adopted at United Nations. 
More about News 
• India is victim of state-sponsored cross-border terrorism, has been at the forefront in highlighting the serious 
threat to international peace and security emanating from acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by 
terrorist groups. 
• For this India tabled an annual resolution for 
‘Measures to prevent terrorists from 
acquiring weapons of mass destruction’. 
o It co-sponsored by over 75 countries and 
adopted by consensus in the First 
Committee of the UN General Assembly. 
o Through the resolution India has urged 
greater international co-operation to 
prevent terrorists from acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction and their 
delivery systems. 
• Also, First Committee of UN General 
Assembly adopted two resolutions which 
were sponsored by India: Convention on the 
Prohibition of the use of Nuclear Weapons' 
and Reducing Nuclear Danger' - under the 
Nuclear weapons' cluster. 
• UN resolution 1540 also obliges all states to 
refrain from supporting by any means non-
State actors from developing, acquiring, 
manufacturing, possessing, transporting, 
transferring or using nuclear, chemical or 
biological weapons and their means of 
delivery in terror affected countries. 
• According to the Institute for Economics and 
Peace’s Global Terrorism Index, 2020 ranks 
India as 8th in the world on a list of countries 
most affected by terrorism in 2019. 
India & Counter terrorism measures at 
international level 
• India has prioritised the adoption of an 
intergovernmental framework to combat 
terrorism. 
• Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC): It was established by UN Security Council resolution 1373 (2001), to 
implement measures intended to enhance their legal and institutional ability to counter terrorist activities at 
home, in their regions and around the world. 
• Global Counter-Terrorism Forum (GCTF): In 2011 US created the GCTF, an action-oriented platform outside 
the UN framework to foster effective multilateral cooperation in counter-terrorism. 
About Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) 
• WMD are atomic explosive weapons, radioactive material 
weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any 
weapons developed in the future which might have 
characteristics comparable in destructive effect to those of 
the atomic bomb or other weapons mentioned above. 
• WMDs constitute a class of weaponry with the potential to: 
o Produce in a single moment an enormous destructive 
effect capable to kill millions of civilians, jeopardize the 
natural environment; 
o Cause death or serious injury of people through toxic or 
poisonous chemicals; 
o Disseminate disease-causing organisms or toxins to 
harm or kill humans, animals or plants; 
• A number of multilateral treaties exist to outlaw several 
classes of WMDs. These treaties include: 
o Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) 
o Multilateral treaties targeting the proliferation, testing 
and achieving progress on the disarmament of nuclear 
weapons include the  
? Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear 
Weapons (NPT),  
? the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 
(TPNW),  
? the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The 
Atmosphere,  
? In Outer Space And Under Water, also known as 
the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT),  
? Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which 
was signed in 1996 but has yet to enter into force.  
o Several treaties also exist to prevent the proliferation of 
missiles and related technologies, which can be used as 
a vehicle to deliver WMD payloads like the Hague Code 
of Conduct (HCOC) and the Missile Technology Control 
Regime (MTCR). 
 
51                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF): It was established in 2005 and endorsed by the 
General Assembly through the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in 2006. It aims to enhance 
coordination and coherence of counter-terrorism efforts of the United Nations system. 
• UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy: It is a unique global 
instrument to enhance national, regional and international 
efforts to counter terrorism, through its adoption in 2006. 
• Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, 
Separatism and Extremism: Adopted by SCO for 
maintenance of international peace and security and 
promotion of friendly relations and cooperation among 
States. India is member state of SCO. 
• BRICS counter-terrorism strategy: It is to complement and 
strengthen the existing bilateral and multilateral ties among 
the BRICS countries, and to make a meaningful contribution 
to the global efforts of preventing and combating the threat 
of terrorism. India is member state of BRICS. 
• Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism 
(CCIT): India had proposed it in UNGA far back in 1996 and 
wishes to highlight the importance and need for early 
finalization draft CCIT. 
• Financial Action Task Force (FATF): It is an international 
organisation that works towards establishing global 
standards for combating money laundering and terrorist financing. 
Counter terrorism measures in India at National Level 
• National Investigation Agency (NIA): It is created to probe terror attacks in the country, following the 26/11 terrorist 
attacks on Mumbai in 2008. 
• National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID): It is to interconnect security agencies of the Indian Government to gather and 
share intelligence data among them. 
• National Security Guard (NSG): It is a paramilitary force that is primarily responsible for counterterrorism and anti-
hijacking operations. 
• Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, (UAPA) 1967: Act provides for the more effective prevention of certain unlawful 
activities and for dealing with terrorist activities of individuals and associations. 
• Against financing of terrorism: Prevention of Money-Laundering (Amendment) Act, 2005, Indian Financial Intelligence 
Unit (FIU-IND) established to investigate cases of terror financing. 
4.2. BIO-TERRORISM 
Why in news? 
Parliamentary panel has highlighted the need for the government to have laws to counter bio-terrorism in its 
report ‘The Outbreak of Pandemic COVID-19 and its Management’. 
More about news 
• Earlier, Department of Health and Family Welfare, submitted a seven-point action plan that is needed to 
ensure security against biological weapons. 
o Action plan includes strengthening disease surveillance, training, capacity building, strengthening 
research and surveillance activities related to development of diagnostics, vaccines and drugs etc. 
• After deliberations with Parliamentary panel on action plan, it came to conclusion to formulate effective laws 
to counter bio-terrorism.  
o Moreover, adverse effects of COVID-19 pandemic have taught the lesson on the importance of controlling 
biological agents. 
About bio-terrorism 
• Bioterrorism is a planned and deliberate use of pathogenic strains of microorganisms such as bacteria, 
viruses, or their toxins to spread life-threatening diseases on a mass scale in order to devastate the population 
of an area. 
 
52                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Bioterrorism agents are classified as categories A, B, and C. 
o Category A: High-priority agents 
that pose a risk to national security 
because they can be easily 
disseminated or transmitted from 
person to person, result in high 
mortality rates. Eg. Anthrax by 
Bacillus anthracis, botulism by 
Clostridium botulinum toxin, 
plague by Yersinia pestis etc. 
o Category B: The second highest 
priority agents include brucellosis 
(Brucella species), glanders 
(Burkholderia mallei), melioidosis 
(Burkholderia pseudomallei), 
psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci) etc. 
o Category C: This include emerging 
pathogens that could be 
engineered for mass dissemination 
in the future. Eg. Emerging 
infectious diseases such as Nipah 
virus and Hanta virus etc. 
• These agents are delivered by Scud 
missiles, motor vehicles with spray, 
hand pump sprayers, book or letter, 
guns, remote control, robots etc. 
• It is often difficult to monitor the origin 
of such diseases/attacks. 
Need for Bio terrorism law in India 
• India’s high vulnerability: High 
population density, Inadequate medical facilities, subtropical climatic conditions, poor hygiene and 
inadequate sanitation facilities make India extremely susceptible for such attacks. 
• Control its impact on society: Bioterrorism causes damage, fear, and anxiety among people and affects the 
society and government of a country. These biologic weapons can cause large-scale mortality and morbidity 
in large population and create civil disruption in the shortest possible time. ? 
• Increase in attacks due to advancement in technology: In this era of biotechnology and nanotechnology has 
created an easy accessibility to more sophisticated biologic agents apart from the conventional bacteria, 
viruses and toxins. 
Mechanism to counter bio-terrorism 
• Deterrence by law: Structured legislation is essential element of national preparedness against bioterrorism 
and for being punished for the such act perpetrated. 
o For this need to introduce Public Health Bill on the line of Public Health (Prevention, Control and 
Management of epidemics, bio-terrorism and disasters) Bill-2017, which defined terms epidemic, 
isolation, quarantine and social distancing, but lapsed. 
o Bill also needs to repeal of Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897, which is not specific to biological threat and 
does not define terms. 
• Prevention: This is to be done through examining the risk of bioterror attacks, case studies, prevention of 
attacks, preparation and training of law enforcement personnel, and the related legal and political framework 
to reduce opportunity and enhanced intelligence. 
• Surveillance and assessment: This can be done by recognizing patterns of non-specific syndromes and 
assessing them, that could indicate the early manifestations of a biological warfare attack. 
Existing measures to counter bio-terrorism in India  
• Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897: Act to provide for the better 
prevention of the spread of Dangerous Epidemic Diseases by 
providing special powers to authorities. 
• National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA): NDMA has 
proposed a model instrument where participation of both 
government and private sectors is a pre-requisite to manage the 
menace of biological disaster. Half of the existing force is 
specifically trained to deal with chemical, biological, radiological, 
and nuclear (CBRN) threats. 
• Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP): It was initiated in 
assistance with World bank, to strengthen/maintain decentralized 
laboratory-based IT enabled disease surveillance system for 
epidemic-prone diseases to monitor disease trends and to detect 
and respond to outbreaks in early rising phase through trained 
Rapid Response Team. 
• International Health Regulations: Revised International Health 
Regulations came into force in India in June 2007, that helps to 
ensure that outbreaks and other public health emergencies of 
international concern are detected and investigated more rapidly.  
Initiatives at international level 
• Biological Weapons Convention: It is first multilateral 
disarmament treaty banning the development, production and 
stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons. 
• INTERPOL Bioterrorism Prevention Unit: It aims to enable law 
enforcement agencies to prevent, prepare and respond to the 
deliberate use of bacteria, viruses or biological toxins that threaten 
or cause harm to humans, animals or agriculture. 
• Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: It is an international agreement 
which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living 
modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology. 
Page 4


 
50                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
4. SECURITY 
4.1. INDIA'S ANNUAL RESOLUTION ON COUNTER-TERRORISM 
Why in news? 
India's annual resolution on the issue of counter-terrorism ”Measures to prevent terrorists from acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction” was adopted at United Nations. 
More about News 
• India is victim of state-sponsored cross-border terrorism, has been at the forefront in highlighting the serious 
threat to international peace and security emanating from acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by 
terrorist groups. 
• For this India tabled an annual resolution for 
‘Measures to prevent terrorists from 
acquiring weapons of mass destruction’. 
o It co-sponsored by over 75 countries and 
adopted by consensus in the First 
Committee of the UN General Assembly. 
o Through the resolution India has urged 
greater international co-operation to 
prevent terrorists from acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction and their 
delivery systems. 
• Also, First Committee of UN General 
Assembly adopted two resolutions which 
were sponsored by India: Convention on the 
Prohibition of the use of Nuclear Weapons' 
and Reducing Nuclear Danger' - under the 
Nuclear weapons' cluster. 
• UN resolution 1540 also obliges all states to 
refrain from supporting by any means non-
State actors from developing, acquiring, 
manufacturing, possessing, transporting, 
transferring or using nuclear, chemical or 
biological weapons and their means of 
delivery in terror affected countries. 
• According to the Institute for Economics and 
Peace’s Global Terrorism Index, 2020 ranks 
India as 8th in the world on a list of countries 
most affected by terrorism in 2019. 
India & Counter terrorism measures at 
international level 
• India has prioritised the adoption of an 
intergovernmental framework to combat 
terrorism. 
• Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC): It was established by UN Security Council resolution 1373 (2001), to 
implement measures intended to enhance their legal and institutional ability to counter terrorist activities at 
home, in their regions and around the world. 
• Global Counter-Terrorism Forum (GCTF): In 2011 US created the GCTF, an action-oriented platform outside 
the UN framework to foster effective multilateral cooperation in counter-terrorism. 
About Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) 
• WMD are atomic explosive weapons, radioactive material 
weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any 
weapons developed in the future which might have 
characteristics comparable in destructive effect to those of 
the atomic bomb or other weapons mentioned above. 
• WMDs constitute a class of weaponry with the potential to: 
o Produce in a single moment an enormous destructive 
effect capable to kill millions of civilians, jeopardize the 
natural environment; 
o Cause death or serious injury of people through toxic or 
poisonous chemicals; 
o Disseminate disease-causing organisms or toxins to 
harm or kill humans, animals or plants; 
• A number of multilateral treaties exist to outlaw several 
classes of WMDs. These treaties include: 
o Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) 
o Multilateral treaties targeting the proliferation, testing 
and achieving progress on the disarmament of nuclear 
weapons include the  
? Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear 
Weapons (NPT),  
? the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 
(TPNW),  
? the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The 
Atmosphere,  
? In Outer Space And Under Water, also known as 
the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT),  
? Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which 
was signed in 1996 but has yet to enter into force.  
o Several treaties also exist to prevent the proliferation of 
missiles and related technologies, which can be used as 
a vehicle to deliver WMD payloads like the Hague Code 
of Conduct (HCOC) and the Missile Technology Control 
Regime (MTCR). 
 
51                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF): It was established in 2005 and endorsed by the 
General Assembly through the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in 2006. It aims to enhance 
coordination and coherence of counter-terrorism efforts of the United Nations system. 
• UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy: It is a unique global 
instrument to enhance national, regional and international 
efforts to counter terrorism, through its adoption in 2006. 
• Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, 
Separatism and Extremism: Adopted by SCO for 
maintenance of international peace and security and 
promotion of friendly relations and cooperation among 
States. India is member state of SCO. 
• BRICS counter-terrorism strategy: It is to complement and 
strengthen the existing bilateral and multilateral ties among 
the BRICS countries, and to make a meaningful contribution 
to the global efforts of preventing and combating the threat 
of terrorism. India is member state of BRICS. 
• Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism 
(CCIT): India had proposed it in UNGA far back in 1996 and 
wishes to highlight the importance and need for early 
finalization draft CCIT. 
• Financial Action Task Force (FATF): It is an international 
organisation that works towards establishing global 
standards for combating money laundering and terrorist financing. 
Counter terrorism measures in India at National Level 
• National Investigation Agency (NIA): It is created to probe terror attacks in the country, following the 26/11 terrorist 
attacks on Mumbai in 2008. 
• National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID): It is to interconnect security agencies of the Indian Government to gather and 
share intelligence data among them. 
• National Security Guard (NSG): It is a paramilitary force that is primarily responsible for counterterrorism and anti-
hijacking operations. 
• Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, (UAPA) 1967: Act provides for the more effective prevention of certain unlawful 
activities and for dealing with terrorist activities of individuals and associations. 
• Against financing of terrorism: Prevention of Money-Laundering (Amendment) Act, 2005, Indian Financial Intelligence 
Unit (FIU-IND) established to investigate cases of terror financing. 
4.2. BIO-TERRORISM 
Why in news? 
Parliamentary panel has highlighted the need for the government to have laws to counter bio-terrorism in its 
report ‘The Outbreak of Pandemic COVID-19 and its Management’. 
More about news 
• Earlier, Department of Health and Family Welfare, submitted a seven-point action plan that is needed to 
ensure security against biological weapons. 
o Action plan includes strengthening disease surveillance, training, capacity building, strengthening 
research and surveillance activities related to development of diagnostics, vaccines and drugs etc. 
• After deliberations with Parliamentary panel on action plan, it came to conclusion to formulate effective laws 
to counter bio-terrorism.  
o Moreover, adverse effects of COVID-19 pandemic have taught the lesson on the importance of controlling 
biological agents. 
About bio-terrorism 
• Bioterrorism is a planned and deliberate use of pathogenic strains of microorganisms such as bacteria, 
viruses, or their toxins to spread life-threatening diseases on a mass scale in order to devastate the population 
of an area. 
 
52                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Bioterrorism agents are classified as categories A, B, and C. 
o Category A: High-priority agents 
that pose a risk to national security 
because they can be easily 
disseminated or transmitted from 
person to person, result in high 
mortality rates. Eg. Anthrax by 
Bacillus anthracis, botulism by 
Clostridium botulinum toxin, 
plague by Yersinia pestis etc. 
o Category B: The second highest 
priority agents include brucellosis 
(Brucella species), glanders 
(Burkholderia mallei), melioidosis 
(Burkholderia pseudomallei), 
psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci) etc. 
o Category C: This include emerging 
pathogens that could be 
engineered for mass dissemination 
in the future. Eg. Emerging 
infectious diseases such as Nipah 
virus and Hanta virus etc. 
• These agents are delivered by Scud 
missiles, motor vehicles with spray, 
hand pump sprayers, book or letter, 
guns, remote control, robots etc. 
• It is often difficult to monitor the origin 
of such diseases/attacks. 
Need for Bio terrorism law in India 
• India’s high vulnerability: High 
population density, Inadequate medical facilities, subtropical climatic conditions, poor hygiene and 
inadequate sanitation facilities make India extremely susceptible for such attacks. 
• Control its impact on society: Bioterrorism causes damage, fear, and anxiety among people and affects the 
society and government of a country. These biologic weapons can cause large-scale mortality and morbidity 
in large population and create civil disruption in the shortest possible time. ? 
• Increase in attacks due to advancement in technology: In this era of biotechnology and nanotechnology has 
created an easy accessibility to more sophisticated biologic agents apart from the conventional bacteria, 
viruses and toxins. 
Mechanism to counter bio-terrorism 
• Deterrence by law: Structured legislation is essential element of national preparedness against bioterrorism 
and for being punished for the such act perpetrated. 
o For this need to introduce Public Health Bill on the line of Public Health (Prevention, Control and 
Management of epidemics, bio-terrorism and disasters) Bill-2017, which defined terms epidemic, 
isolation, quarantine and social distancing, but lapsed. 
o Bill also needs to repeal of Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897, which is not specific to biological threat and 
does not define terms. 
• Prevention: This is to be done through examining the risk of bioterror attacks, case studies, prevention of 
attacks, preparation and training of law enforcement personnel, and the related legal and political framework 
to reduce opportunity and enhanced intelligence. 
• Surveillance and assessment: This can be done by recognizing patterns of non-specific syndromes and 
assessing them, that could indicate the early manifestations of a biological warfare attack. 
Existing measures to counter bio-terrorism in India  
• Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897: Act to provide for the better 
prevention of the spread of Dangerous Epidemic Diseases by 
providing special powers to authorities. 
• National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA): NDMA has 
proposed a model instrument where participation of both 
government and private sectors is a pre-requisite to manage the 
menace of biological disaster. Half of the existing force is 
specifically trained to deal with chemical, biological, radiological, 
and nuclear (CBRN) threats. 
• Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP): It was initiated in 
assistance with World bank, to strengthen/maintain decentralized 
laboratory-based IT enabled disease surveillance system for 
epidemic-prone diseases to monitor disease trends and to detect 
and respond to outbreaks in early rising phase through trained 
Rapid Response Team. 
• International Health Regulations: Revised International Health 
Regulations came into force in India in June 2007, that helps to 
ensure that outbreaks and other public health emergencies of 
international concern are detected and investigated more rapidly.  
Initiatives at international level 
• Biological Weapons Convention: It is first multilateral 
disarmament treaty banning the development, production and 
stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons. 
• INTERPOL Bioterrorism Prevention Unit: It aims to enable law 
enforcement agencies to prevent, prepare and respond to the 
deliberate use of bacteria, viruses or biological toxins that threaten 
or cause harm to humans, animals or agriculture. 
• Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: It is an international agreement 
which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living 
modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology. 
 
53                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• Laboratory investigation: Primary healthcare providers, laboratory staff, are the first responders and will most 
likely identify the initial cases. 
o Hence in conjunction with infection control and administrative personnel should develop both 
laboratory- and institution-wide response plans for diagnosis and characterization of the biological 
organism. 
• Medical management: It should include preventive, promotive, and curative services like Chemoprevention 
to prevent the spread of the disease, through identifying the category of population to be given 
chemoprophylaxis, availability of the requisite quantity of drugs or vaccine; and outline of the mechanism of 
administration with health infrastructure. 
• General public sensitization: This can be done by law enforcing agencies, through training and education, 
warning network at hospitals and public health agencies etc. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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