Security: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly

Current Affairs : Security: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


	
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	CRITICAL	INFRASTRUCTURE	
Why in News? 
Recently, Ministry of Power (MoP) claimed that State-
sponsored Chinese hacker groups had targeted various 
Indian power centres. 
More on News 
• MoP claimed that no data breach/ data loss has 
been detected as attempts from these groups have 
been thwarted after government cyber agencies 
warned about their activities. 
o National Critical Information Infrastructure 
Protection Centre (NCIIPC) warned about the 
threat from a malware called Shadow Pad. 
• Also, a recent report in New York Times claimed 
that Red Echo, a hacker group affiliated with the Chinese government, targeted India’s critical power grids 
through Shadow Pad malware (type of malicious software designed to harm or exploit any programmable 
device, service or network). 
About Critical Infrastructure (CI) 
• CI describes the physical and cyber systems and assets that are so vital to a country that their incapacity or 
destruction would have a debilitating impact on national security and the economic and social welfare of a 
state. 
o Chemicals, Dams, emergency services, Power & Energy, Banking & financial services, government 
facilities, healthcare, information technology, transportation, nuclear reactors etc. are considered parts of 
CI of a country.  
• Importance of CIs 
o Any delay, distortion or disruption in the functioning of these CIs has the potential to quickly cascade 
across other CIs with the potential to cause political, economic, social or national instability. 
o Attack or an outage affecting these infrastructures could have cascading effects on large part of the 
population. 
o Attacks on CIs can have a significant economic impact, especially when targeted in conflict between 
nations. 
Related News 
Cyber Volunteer Program (CVP) 
• Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) informed that a CVP 
has been rolled out for cyber hygiene promotion to-  
o Bring together citizens to contribute to the fight 
against cybercrime in the country.  
o Assist State/UT LEAs (law enforcement agencies) 
to curb cybercrimes. 
• CVP is envisaged by Indian Cyber Crime Coordination 
Centre (I4C). 
o I4C, under MHA, acts as a nodal point at National 
level in the fight against cybercrime. 
o It brings together academia, industry, public 
and government in prevention, detection, 
investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes.  
Page 2


	
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	CRITICAL	INFRASTRUCTURE	
Why in News? 
Recently, Ministry of Power (MoP) claimed that State-
sponsored Chinese hacker groups had targeted various 
Indian power centres. 
More on News 
• MoP claimed that no data breach/ data loss has 
been detected as attempts from these groups have 
been thwarted after government cyber agencies 
warned about their activities. 
o National Critical Information Infrastructure 
Protection Centre (NCIIPC) warned about the 
threat from a malware called Shadow Pad. 
• Also, a recent report in New York Times claimed 
that Red Echo, a hacker group affiliated with the Chinese government, targeted India’s critical power grids 
through Shadow Pad malware (type of malicious software designed to harm or exploit any programmable 
device, service or network). 
About Critical Infrastructure (CI) 
• CI describes the physical and cyber systems and assets that are so vital to a country that their incapacity or 
destruction would have a debilitating impact on national security and the economic and social welfare of a 
state. 
o Chemicals, Dams, emergency services, Power & Energy, Banking & financial services, government 
facilities, healthcare, information technology, transportation, nuclear reactors etc. are considered parts of 
CI of a country.  
• Importance of CIs 
o Any delay, distortion or disruption in the functioning of these CIs has the potential to quickly cascade 
across other CIs with the potential to cause political, economic, social or national instability. 
o Attack or an outage affecting these infrastructures could have cascading effects on large part of the 
population. 
o Attacks on CIs can have a significant economic impact, especially when targeted in conflict between 
nations. 
Related News 
Cyber Volunteer Program (CVP) 
• Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) informed that a CVP 
has been rolled out for cyber hygiene promotion to-  
o Bring together citizens to contribute to the fight 
against cybercrime in the country.  
o Assist State/UT LEAs (law enforcement agencies) 
to curb cybercrimes. 
• CVP is envisaged by Indian Cyber Crime Coordination 
Centre (I4C). 
o I4C, under MHA, acts as a nodal point at National 
level in the fight against cybercrime. 
o It brings together academia, industry, public 
and government in prevention, detection, 
investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes.  
	
	
 
Way forward 
• Evolving protection strategies, policies, vulnerability assessment and auditing methodologies and plans for 
their dissemination and implementation for protection of CIs. 
• Government must develop and execute national and international cooperation strategies and also actively 
collaborate with public and private sector partners to improve the security and resilience of CIs. 
• Training and awareness programs and also nurturing and development of audit and certification agencies for 
protection of CIs. 
• Build and grow the cyber workforce to ensure sufficient skills and talent is available. 
• An integrated and sustainable supply chain security objective must be included in business plans, contracts 
and operations. 
Critical Infrastructure protection in India  
• In 2014, India established the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) to regulate and 
protect the nation’s Critical Information Infrastructures (CIIs). 
o CIIs, as defined by the Information Technology Act of 2000, are vital computer resources that, if incapacitated or 
destroyed, will leave a debilitating impact on national security, economy, public health or safety across both 
public and private sectors. 
o CI organizations in multiple sectors such as power and utilities, telecommunications and transport, and strategic 
and public enterprises operate according to the guidelines issued by NCPIIC. 
o These guidelines cover entire cyber security lifecycle including planning, implementation, operations, disaster 
recovery, and business continuity planning as well as reporting and accountability.  
• Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In): National nodal agency for responding to computer security 
incidents. 
• National Cyber Security Coordinator (NCSC) under National Security Council Secretariat coordinates with different 
agencies at the national level for cyber security matters.  
• National Cyber Coordination Centre to generate necessary situational awareness of cyber security threats and enable 
timely information sharing for proactive, preventive and protective actions. 
• A new Division under the Ministry of Home Affairs for Cyber and Information Security.  
• Guidelines have been issued for Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) regarding their key roles and 
responsibilities for securing applications / infrastructure and compliance. 
• Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre) has been launched for detection of malicious 
programs and provide free tools to remove the same.  
	
Page 3


	
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	CRITICAL	INFRASTRUCTURE	
Why in News? 
Recently, Ministry of Power (MoP) claimed that State-
sponsored Chinese hacker groups had targeted various 
Indian power centres. 
More on News 
• MoP claimed that no data breach/ data loss has 
been detected as attempts from these groups have 
been thwarted after government cyber agencies 
warned about their activities. 
o National Critical Information Infrastructure 
Protection Centre (NCIIPC) warned about the 
threat from a malware called Shadow Pad. 
• Also, a recent report in New York Times claimed 
that Red Echo, a hacker group affiliated with the Chinese government, targeted India’s critical power grids 
through Shadow Pad malware (type of malicious software designed to harm or exploit any programmable 
device, service or network). 
About Critical Infrastructure (CI) 
• CI describes the physical and cyber systems and assets that are so vital to a country that their incapacity or 
destruction would have a debilitating impact on national security and the economic and social welfare of a 
state. 
o Chemicals, Dams, emergency services, Power & Energy, Banking & financial services, government 
facilities, healthcare, information technology, transportation, nuclear reactors etc. are considered parts of 
CI of a country.  
• Importance of CIs 
o Any delay, distortion or disruption in the functioning of these CIs has the potential to quickly cascade 
across other CIs with the potential to cause political, economic, social or national instability. 
o Attack or an outage affecting these infrastructures could have cascading effects on large part of the 
population. 
o Attacks on CIs can have a significant economic impact, especially when targeted in conflict between 
nations. 
Related News 
Cyber Volunteer Program (CVP) 
• Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) informed that a CVP 
has been rolled out for cyber hygiene promotion to-  
o Bring together citizens to contribute to the fight 
against cybercrime in the country.  
o Assist State/UT LEAs (law enforcement agencies) 
to curb cybercrimes. 
• CVP is envisaged by Indian Cyber Crime Coordination 
Centre (I4C). 
o I4C, under MHA, acts as a nodal point at National 
level in the fight against cybercrime. 
o It brings together academia, industry, public 
and government in prevention, detection, 
investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes.  
	
	
 
Way forward 
• Evolving protection strategies, policies, vulnerability assessment and auditing methodologies and plans for 
their dissemination and implementation for protection of CIs. 
• Government must develop and execute national and international cooperation strategies and also actively 
collaborate with public and private sector partners to improve the security and resilience of CIs. 
• Training and awareness programs and also nurturing and development of audit and certification agencies for 
protection of CIs. 
• Build and grow the cyber workforce to ensure sufficient skills and talent is available. 
• An integrated and sustainable supply chain security objective must be included in business plans, contracts 
and operations. 
Critical Infrastructure protection in India  
• In 2014, India established the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) to regulate and 
protect the nation’s Critical Information Infrastructures (CIIs). 
o CIIs, as defined by the Information Technology Act of 2000, are vital computer resources that, if incapacitated or 
destroyed, will leave a debilitating impact on national security, economy, public health or safety across both 
public and private sectors. 
o CI organizations in multiple sectors such as power and utilities, telecommunications and transport, and strategic 
and public enterprises operate according to the guidelines issued by NCPIIC. 
o These guidelines cover entire cyber security lifecycle including planning, implementation, operations, disaster 
recovery, and business continuity planning as well as reporting and accountability.  
• Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In): National nodal agency for responding to computer security 
incidents. 
• National Cyber Security Coordinator (NCSC) under National Security Council Secretariat coordinates with different 
agencies at the national level for cyber security matters.  
• National Cyber Coordination Centre to generate necessary situational awareness of cyber security threats and enable 
timely information sharing for proactive, preventive and protective actions. 
• A new Division under the Ministry of Home Affairs for Cyber and Information Security.  
• Guidelines have been issued for Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) regarding their key roles and 
responsibilities for securing applications / infrastructure and compliance. 
• Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre) has been launched for detection of malicious 
programs and provide free tools to remove the same.  
	
	
4.2.	UNLAWFUL	ACTIVITIES	[PREVENTION]	ACT	
Why in news  
Ministry of home affairs has stated that there 
was over 72% rise in number of UAPA 
(Unlawful Activities [Prevention] Act) cases in 
2019 compared to 2015. 
About UAPA  
• The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 
1967 (Act) was enacted to provide for 
more effective prevention of certain 
unlawful activities of individuals and 
associations, and for dealing with terrorist 
activities, and related matters.  
• Act defines “Unlawful activity” as “any 
action taken by individual or association 
that leads to cession of a part of the 
territory of India, questions the 
sovereignty of India or disrupt the 
integrity of India etc. 
• Under the Act, Central government can 
declare a person or an organization as a 
terrorist/ terrorist organisation, if it/ he: 
o commits or participates in acts of terrorism,  
o prepares for terrorism,  
o promotes terrorism, or  
o is otherwise involved in terrorism.  
• It gives powers to the central government to impose all-India bans on associations which are declared 
‘unlawful’ under the Act. It provides for tribunal to review or to hear an appeal against the ban. 
• Both Indian nationals and foreign nationals can be charged under the Act. Also, Act holds offenders 
accountable in the same manner if crime is committed on foreign land outside India. 
• Under the Act, Cases can be investigated by both State police and National Investigation Agency (NIA).  
Significance of UAPA law in the 
contemporary times for India   
• To uproot terrorism from 
India: Terrorists and insurgents 
continue to receive material 
support and funds, the main 
drivers of terrorism – from 
several sources in India. E.g., 
since 2001, 8,473 Indians have 
died at the hands of terrorists. 
• Focus on individuals: Not designating individuals as terrorists, would give them an opportunity to circumvent 
the law and they would simply gather under a different name and keep up their terror activities. This is also 
important in the context of lone wolf attacks, which do not belong to any organisation. 
• Quickens process of justice delivery: Officers in the rank of Inspector are empowered to investigate cases 
under the Act. Inspector-rank officers have over time acquired sufficient proficiency to investigate UAPA-
related cases and this move would quicken the delivery of justice in such cases. 
• Reduces delay in attaching proceeds: Act allows seizure of property connected with terrorism without taking 
approval of Director General of Police in case investigation is conducted by an officer of National Investigation 
Agency (NIA).  
 
Amendments to UAPA 
• Amendments in 2004: Criminalized indirectly supporting a 
terrorist organisation by raising of funds for a terrorist act or 
membership of a terrorist organization etc. 
• Amendments in 2008: Broadened the scope of the provision of 
“funds” to ensure a wider coverage of the financing of terrorism 
offences.  
• Amendments in 2012: Expanded the definition of “terrorist act” 
to include offences that threaten the country’s economic 
security.  
• Amendments in 2019: 
o Government is empowered to designate individuals as 
terrorists. Earlier, only organisations could be designated as 
terrorist organisations. 
o If investigation is conducted by an officer of the National 
Investigation Agency (NIA), approval of Director General of 
NIA would be required for seizure of property connected 
with terrorism. (Earlier, approval of Director General of 
Police was required). 
o Empowered officers of NIA, of rank of Inspector or above, 
to investigate cases. 
o Added International Convention for Suppression of Acts of 
Nuclear Terrorism (2005) to the Schedule under the Act. 
Page 4


	
4.	SECURITY	
4.1.	CRITICAL	INFRASTRUCTURE	
Why in News? 
Recently, Ministry of Power (MoP) claimed that State-
sponsored Chinese hacker groups had targeted various 
Indian power centres. 
More on News 
• MoP claimed that no data breach/ data loss has 
been detected as attempts from these groups have 
been thwarted after government cyber agencies 
warned about their activities. 
o National Critical Information Infrastructure 
Protection Centre (NCIIPC) warned about the 
threat from a malware called Shadow Pad. 
• Also, a recent report in New York Times claimed 
that Red Echo, a hacker group affiliated with the Chinese government, targeted India’s critical power grids 
through Shadow Pad malware (type of malicious software designed to harm or exploit any programmable 
device, service or network). 
About Critical Infrastructure (CI) 
• CI describes the physical and cyber systems and assets that are so vital to a country that their incapacity or 
destruction would have a debilitating impact on national security and the economic and social welfare of a 
state. 
o Chemicals, Dams, emergency services, Power & Energy, Banking & financial services, government 
facilities, healthcare, information technology, transportation, nuclear reactors etc. are considered parts of 
CI of a country.  
• Importance of CIs 
o Any delay, distortion or disruption in the functioning of these CIs has the potential to quickly cascade 
across other CIs with the potential to cause political, economic, social or national instability. 
o Attack or an outage affecting these infrastructures could have cascading effects on large part of the 
population. 
o Attacks on CIs can have a significant economic impact, especially when targeted in conflict between 
nations. 
Related News 
Cyber Volunteer Program (CVP) 
• Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) informed that a CVP 
has been rolled out for cyber hygiene promotion to-  
o Bring together citizens to contribute to the fight 
against cybercrime in the country.  
o Assist State/UT LEAs (law enforcement agencies) 
to curb cybercrimes. 
• CVP is envisaged by Indian Cyber Crime Coordination 
Centre (I4C). 
o I4C, under MHA, acts as a nodal point at National 
level in the fight against cybercrime. 
o It brings together academia, industry, public 
and government in prevention, detection, 
investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes.  
	
	
 
Way forward 
• Evolving protection strategies, policies, vulnerability assessment and auditing methodologies and plans for 
their dissemination and implementation for protection of CIs. 
• Government must develop and execute national and international cooperation strategies and also actively 
collaborate with public and private sector partners to improve the security and resilience of CIs. 
• Training and awareness programs and also nurturing and development of audit and certification agencies for 
protection of CIs. 
• Build and grow the cyber workforce to ensure sufficient skills and talent is available. 
• An integrated and sustainable supply chain security objective must be included in business plans, contracts 
and operations. 
Critical Infrastructure protection in India  
• In 2014, India established the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) to regulate and 
protect the nation’s Critical Information Infrastructures (CIIs). 
o CIIs, as defined by the Information Technology Act of 2000, are vital computer resources that, if incapacitated or 
destroyed, will leave a debilitating impact on national security, economy, public health or safety across both 
public and private sectors. 
o CI organizations in multiple sectors such as power and utilities, telecommunications and transport, and strategic 
and public enterprises operate according to the guidelines issued by NCPIIC. 
o These guidelines cover entire cyber security lifecycle including planning, implementation, operations, disaster 
recovery, and business continuity planning as well as reporting and accountability.  
• Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In): National nodal agency for responding to computer security 
incidents. 
• National Cyber Security Coordinator (NCSC) under National Security Council Secretariat coordinates with different 
agencies at the national level for cyber security matters.  
• National Cyber Coordination Centre to generate necessary situational awareness of cyber security threats and enable 
timely information sharing for proactive, preventive and protective actions. 
• A new Division under the Ministry of Home Affairs for Cyber and Information Security.  
• Guidelines have been issued for Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) regarding their key roles and 
responsibilities for securing applications / infrastructure and compliance. 
• Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre) has been launched for detection of malicious 
programs and provide free tools to remove the same.  
	
	
4.2.	UNLAWFUL	ACTIVITIES	[PREVENTION]	ACT	
Why in news  
Ministry of home affairs has stated that there 
was over 72% rise in number of UAPA 
(Unlawful Activities [Prevention] Act) cases in 
2019 compared to 2015. 
About UAPA  
• The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 
1967 (Act) was enacted to provide for 
more effective prevention of certain 
unlawful activities of individuals and 
associations, and for dealing with terrorist 
activities, and related matters.  
• Act defines “Unlawful activity” as “any 
action taken by individual or association 
that leads to cession of a part of the 
territory of India, questions the 
sovereignty of India or disrupt the 
integrity of India etc. 
• Under the Act, Central government can 
declare a person or an organization as a 
terrorist/ terrorist organisation, if it/ he: 
o commits or participates in acts of terrorism,  
o prepares for terrorism,  
o promotes terrorism, or  
o is otherwise involved in terrorism.  
• It gives powers to the central government to impose all-India bans on associations which are declared 
‘unlawful’ under the Act. It provides for tribunal to review or to hear an appeal against the ban. 
• Both Indian nationals and foreign nationals can be charged under the Act. Also, Act holds offenders 
accountable in the same manner if crime is committed on foreign land outside India. 
• Under the Act, Cases can be investigated by both State police and National Investigation Agency (NIA).  
Significance of UAPA law in the 
contemporary times for India   
• To uproot terrorism from 
India: Terrorists and insurgents 
continue to receive material 
support and funds, the main 
drivers of terrorism – from 
several sources in India. E.g., 
since 2001, 8,473 Indians have 
died at the hands of terrorists. 
• Focus on individuals: Not designating individuals as terrorists, would give them an opportunity to circumvent 
the law and they would simply gather under a different name and keep up their terror activities. This is also 
important in the context of lone wolf attacks, which do not belong to any organisation. 
• Quickens process of justice delivery: Officers in the rank of Inspector are empowered to investigate cases 
under the Act. Inspector-rank officers have over time acquired sufficient proficiency to investigate UAPA-
related cases and this move would quicken the delivery of justice in such cases. 
• Reduces delay in attaching proceeds: Act allows seizure of property connected with terrorism without taking 
approval of Director General of Police in case investigation is conducted by an officer of National Investigation 
Agency (NIA).  
 
Amendments to UAPA 
• Amendments in 2004: Criminalized indirectly supporting a 
terrorist organisation by raising of funds for a terrorist act or 
membership of a terrorist organization etc. 
• Amendments in 2008: Broadened the scope of the provision of 
“funds” to ensure a wider coverage of the financing of terrorism 
offences.  
• Amendments in 2012: Expanded the definition of “terrorist act” 
to include offences that threaten the country’s economic 
security.  
• Amendments in 2019: 
o Government is empowered to designate individuals as 
terrorists. Earlier, only organisations could be designated as 
terrorist organisations. 
o If investigation is conducted by an officer of the National 
Investigation Agency (NIA), approval of Director General of 
NIA would be required for seizure of property connected 
with terrorism. (Earlier, approval of Director General of 
Police was required). 
o Empowered officers of NIA, of rank of Inspector or above, 
to investigate cases. 
o Added International Convention for Suppression of Acts of 
Nuclear Terrorism (2005) to the Schedule under the Act. 
	
Challenges of UAPA Act, 2019                                                        
• Vague and unclear definitions: Act does not define terrorism and definition of ‘unlawful activity’ is such that 
it covers almost every kind of violent act be it political or non-political.   
• Excessive discretionary powers: No objective criterion has been laid for categorization of an individual as a 
terrorist and the government has been provided with “unfettered powers” to designate anyone as a terrorist. 
• Challenge to fundamental rights like Article 14, 19(1)(a), 21: Act does not provide any opportunity to the 
individual termed as a terrorist to justify his case before the arrest. Also, the information which declares a 
person a terrorist can be withheld from him/her for 6 months. Those arrested under Act can be imprisoned 
up to 180 days without a charge sheet being filed. 
• Contrary to the principle of ‘innocent until proven guilty: Act violates mandate of Universal Declaration of 
Human Rights and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which recognize this principle as a 
universal human right.  
• Inappropriate usage: Of the 5922 persons arrested under the Act between 2016-2019, only 2.2% ended in 
convictions by court. 
• Issue in the appeal process: Act provides for appeal, but government itself will set up three-member review 
committee, two of whom can be serving bureaucrats. 
Conclusion 
There is need for stringent laws to fight the terrorism so that authorities do not feel powerless while making a case 
against the accused but there is need to balance human rights and constitutional values. Act provides for a four-
level scrutiny before any decision is taken on designation of an individual as a terrorist.  
The Act is crucial for expediting prosecution in terror cases. However, due process of law shall be followed by 
agencies involved under the Act at every stage. Also, the role of judiciary is paramount to keep a check on misuse 
of such laws. 
 
 
 
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Exam

,

ppt

,

Extra Questions

,

pdf

,

Summary

,

mock tests for examination

,

video lectures

,

Important questions

,

Viva Questions

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Sample Paper

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

past year papers

,

Semester Notes

,

study material

,

Objective type Questions

,

Security: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

practice quizzes

,

Free

,

Security: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Security: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

;