Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

NEET: Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

The document Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET is a part of the NEET Course Biology Class 11.
All you need of NEET at this link: NEET

Semi-Technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant

  • The plant is described beginning with its habit, vegetative characters such as roots, stem and leaves and then floral characters inflorescence and flower parts.
  • After describing various parts of plant, a floral diagram and a floral formula are presented, which is represented by some symbols.
  • In the floral formula, Br stands for bracteate K stands for calyx , C for corolla, P for perianth, A for androecium and G for Gynoecium, G for superior ovary and G for inferior ovary, for male, for female , ⊕ for actinomorphic and for zygomorphic nature of flower.
  • Fusion is indicated by enclosing the figure within bracket and adhesion by a line drawn above the symbols of the floral parts.
  • A floral diagram provides information about the number of parts of a flower, their arrangement and the relation they have with one another.
  • The position of the mother axis with respect to the flower is represented by a dot on the top of the floral diagram.
  • Calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium are drawn in successive whorls, calyx being the outermost and the gynoecium being in the centre.
  • Floral formula also shows cohesion and adhesion within parts of whorls and in between whorls.

Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae: Family Description

According to the plant taxonomists, it has been estimated that a total of 2 to 3 million plant species exists on our planet. Among them, around two lakh species are angiosperms (flowering plants), while others include gymnosperms, bryophytes, hydrophytes and other vascular and non-vascular plants. These plants are grouped into different families depending upon their characteristics.

Solanaceae Family

Solanaceae family is also known as the potato family. Around 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family. Its important characteristics are mentioned below.
Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

Characteristics of Solanaceae Family

Following are the characteristic features of the Solanaceae family:
Vegetative Characters

  • Root System: Taproot system.
  • Stem: Erect or climber; Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers.
  • Leaves:  Alternate, simple or pinnately compound (rarely); exstipulate; reticulate venation.

Floral characters

  • Inflorescence: Racemose- terminal or axillary raceme; Cymose- solitary in Solanum.
  • Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous.
  • Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; valvate aestivation.
  • Corolla: Five petals, gamopetalous, valvate aestivation.
  • Androecium: Five stamens, epipetalous; anthers basifixed.
  • Gynoecium: Syncarpous, bicarpellary, bilocular, superior ovary, axile placentation.
  • Fruit: Berry/ capsule.
  • Seed: Numerous, endospermous

Economic Importance
The economic importance of some plants belonging to the Solanaceae family are as follows:

  • These are an important source of food. E.g. tomato, brinjal and potato
  • These are important sources of spices. E.g. chilly
  • The leaves of Nicotiana tabacum are a major source of tobacco.
  • These are also used as ornamental plants. E.g. petunia
  • Plants such as belladonna and ashwagandha are also used as medicinal plants.

Fabaceae Family
The Fabaceae family is a large family of the plant kingdom, including several economically important plants. The family Fabaceae is also known as Leguminosae or Papilionaceae since it belongs to the pea or legume family. There are around 20,000 species of dicotyledonous Fabaceae plants widely distributed all over the world.
Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

Characteristics of Fabaceae Family

Listed below are the morphological and floral characteristics of the Fabaceae family.

Vegetative Characters

  • Root: Dicotyledons, taproot with root nodules.
  • Stem: Erect or climber; Fabaceae includes shrubs, herbs, trees and majorly climbers.
  • Leaves: Petiolate, pinnately compound or simple; pulvinus leaf base, stipulate; reticulate venation.

Floral Characters

  • Inflorescence: Racemose.
  • Flower: Complete, bisexual, zygomorphic, hypogynous, bracteate/ ebracteate.
  • Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; valvate or imbricate aestivation.
  • Corolla: Five petals, polypetalous, papilionaceous, vexillary aestivation.
  • Androecium: Ten stamens (9+1), diadelphous, anther dithecous.
  • Gynoecium: Superior ovary, monocarpellary, unilocular, single, short -style and flat, hairy-stigma.
  • Fruit: Legume.
  • Seed: One or more, non-endospermic.

Economic Importance

Many plants belonging to this family are economically useful. Few of them are listed below:

  • The plants of this family are unique and have root nodules which contain nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria, capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen or ammonia.
  • Pulses like gram, moong, soya bean are the main source of food.
  • Mulethi plant is known for its medicinal value.
  • Soya bean and groundnuts are used to extract oil that is used for cooking.
  • Sunn hemp is the source of timber and fibre.
  • Indigofera is used to make dye.
  • Sesbania and Trifolium are the sources of fodder or livestock feed.
  • Lupin and sweet pea are known as ornamental plants.

Liliaceae Family

Liliaceae is the family of around 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots. It is also known as the ‘lily family’. Its characteristics are discussed below.
Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET

Characteristics of Liliaceae Family

Following are the important characteristics of the Liliaceae family.

Vegetative Characters

  • Root: Fibrous root system.
  • Stem: Erect; Liliaceae includes perennial herbs which propagate through bulbs or rhizomes.
  • Leaves:  Alternate, simple; exstipulate; parallel venation.

Floral characters

  • Inflorescence: Cymose- solitary; umbellate clusters.
  • Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic; hypogynous, perianth present.
  • Perianth: Indistinctive sepal and petal; six tepals (3+3), often united tepals; valvate aestivation.
  • Androecium: Six stamens in two whorls (3+3).
  • Gynoecium: Syncarpous, tricarpellary, trilocular, superior ovary with axile placentation.
  • Fruit: Mostly Capsule and sometimes berry.
  • Seed: Endospermic seeds.

Economic Importance
The economic importance of the plants belonging to the Liliaceae family are:

  • Source of Medicine - Aloe vera, Smilax and Colchicine.
  • Ornamental Plants - Lilium, tulips, Gloriosa and Ruscus.
  • Source of food (or) Vegetables-Asparagus.
  • Bulbs of Allium cepa and the roots of various species of Smilax are used as flavouring agents.
The document Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families Notes | Study Biology Class 11 - NEET is a part of the NEET Course Biology Class 11.
All you need of NEET at this link: NEET
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