Sensor Platform - UCB Motes Notes | EduRev

Created by: Vikas Sharma

: Sensor Platform - UCB Motes Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Sensor Platform: UCB Motes
Vision
Hardware overview
Software overview
The Systems Challenge
10 years from now the most of the network will 
be small, embedded devices
! today ship 200 M microproc/year, 8.5 B 
embedded proc/year
What?s the challenge?
! (a) They won?t be individually important like your 
PC, laptop, PDA, cell phone
" 100s-1,000s per person
" reside where no system admin can go
! (b) Highly Application Specific
! (c) Highly constrained resources (storage, energy)
! (d) Must be Robust despite changing environment
! (e) All of the above
Circulatory Net
Disaster Mgmt
Habitat Monitoring
Page 2


Sensor Platform: UCB Motes
Vision
Hardware overview
Software overview
The Systems Challenge
10 years from now the most of the network will 
be small, embedded devices
! today ship 200 M microproc/year, 8.5 B 
embedded proc/year
What?s the challenge?
! (a) They won?t be individually important like your 
PC, laptop, PDA, cell phone
" 100s-1,000s per person
" reside where no system admin can go
! (b) Highly Application Specific
! (c) Highly constrained resources (storage, energy)
! (d) Must be Robust despite changing environment
! (e) All of the above
Circulatory Net
Disaster Mgmt
Habitat Monitoring
Starting Point
Hands-on Experience with Large Networks of Tiny 
Network sensors
! small microcontroller, low-power radio, 
flash/eeprom
! sensor and power boards
! tiny event driven operating system
! intense constraints, freedom of abstraction
Re-explore entire range of networking issues
! encoding, framing, error handling
! media access control, transmission rate control
! discovery, multihop routing
! broadcast, multicast, aggregation
! active network capsule (reprogramming)
! localization, time synchronization
! security, network-wide protection
! density independent wake-up and proximity est.
Fundamentally new aspects in each
Key Characteristics of TNDs
Small physical size and low power consumption
=> Limited Physical Parallelism and Controller Hierarchy
=> primitive direct-to-device interface
Concurrency-intensive operation
! flow-thru, not wait-command-respond
=> must handle multiple inputs and outputs simultaneously
Diverse in Design and Usage
! application specific, not general purpose
! huge device variation
=> efficient modularity
=> migration across HW/SW boundary
Largely Unattended & Numerous
=> robust operation
=> narrow interfaces
Page 3


Sensor Platform: UCB Motes
Vision
Hardware overview
Software overview
The Systems Challenge
10 years from now the most of the network will 
be small, embedded devices
! today ship 200 M microproc/year, 8.5 B 
embedded proc/year
What?s the challenge?
! (a) They won?t be individually important like your 
PC, laptop, PDA, cell phone
" 100s-1,000s per person
" reside where no system admin can go
! (b) Highly Application Specific
! (c) Highly constrained resources (storage, energy)
! (d) Must be Robust despite changing environment
! (e) All of the above
Circulatory Net
Disaster Mgmt
Habitat Monitoring
Starting Point
Hands-on Experience with Large Networks of Tiny 
Network sensors
! small microcontroller, low-power radio, 
flash/eeprom
! sensor and power boards
! tiny event driven operating system
! intense constraints, freedom of abstraction
Re-explore entire range of networking issues
! encoding, framing, error handling
! media access control, transmission rate control
! discovery, multihop routing
! broadcast, multicast, aggregation
! active network capsule (reprogramming)
! localization, time synchronization
! security, network-wide protection
! density independent wake-up and proximity est.
Fundamentally new aspects in each
Key Characteristics of TNDs
Small physical size and low power consumption
=> Limited Physical Parallelism and Controller Hierarchy
=> primitive direct-to-device interface
Concurrency-intensive operation
! flow-thru, not wait-command-respond
=> must handle multiple inputs and outputs simultaneously
Diverse in Design and Usage
! application specific, not general purpose
! huge device variation
=> efficient modularity
=> migration across HW/SW boundary
Largely Unattended & Numerous
=> robust operation
=> narrow interfaces
?Mote??The Hardware
4Mhz, 8bit MCU (ATMEL)
512 bytes RAM, 8K ROM
900Mhz Radio (RF Monolithics)
10-100 ft. range
Temperature Sensor
Light Sensor
LED outputs
Serial Port
COTS Dust
weC Mote
Second Generation ?Mote?
Two Board Sandwich
! Main CPU board with Radio 
Communication
! Secondary Sensor Board
Allows for expansion and 
customization
! Current sensors include:  Acceleration, Magnetic 
Field, Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Light,  and 
RF Signal Strength.
! Can control RF transmission strength & Sense 
Reception Strength
Page 4


Sensor Platform: UCB Motes
Vision
Hardware overview
Software overview
The Systems Challenge
10 years from now the most of the network will 
be small, embedded devices
! today ship 200 M microproc/year, 8.5 B 
embedded proc/year
What?s the challenge?
! (a) They won?t be individually important like your 
PC, laptop, PDA, cell phone
" 100s-1,000s per person
" reside where no system admin can go
! (b) Highly Application Specific
! (c) Highly constrained resources (storage, energy)
! (d) Must be Robust despite changing environment
! (e) All of the above
Circulatory Net
Disaster Mgmt
Habitat Monitoring
Starting Point
Hands-on Experience with Large Networks of Tiny 
Network sensors
! small microcontroller, low-power radio, 
flash/eeprom
! sensor and power boards
! tiny event driven operating system
! intense constraints, freedom of abstraction
Re-explore entire range of networking issues
! encoding, framing, error handling
! media access control, transmission rate control
! discovery, multihop routing
! broadcast, multicast, aggregation
! active network capsule (reprogramming)
! localization, time synchronization
! security, network-wide protection
! density independent wake-up and proximity est.
Fundamentally new aspects in each
Key Characteristics of TNDs
Small physical size and low power consumption
=> Limited Physical Parallelism and Controller Hierarchy
=> primitive direct-to-device interface
Concurrency-intensive operation
! flow-thru, not wait-command-respond
=> must handle multiple inputs and outputs simultaneously
Diverse in Design and Usage
! application specific, not general purpose
! huge device variation
=> efficient modularity
=> migration across HW/SW boundary
Largely Unattended & Numerous
=> robust operation
=> narrow interfaces
?Mote??The Hardware
4Mhz, 8bit MCU (ATMEL)
512 bytes RAM, 8K ROM
900Mhz Radio (RF Monolithics)
10-100 ft. range
Temperature Sensor
Light Sensor
LED outputs
Serial Port
COTS Dust
weC Mote
Second Generation ?Mote?
Two Board Sandwich
! Main CPU board with Radio 
Communication
! Secondary Sensor Board
Allows for expansion and 
customization
! Current sensors include:  Acceleration, Magnetic 
Field, Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Light,  and 
RF Signal Strength.
! Can control RF transmission strength & Sense 
Reception Strength
Networked Sensor/Act Node
1? x 1.5? motherboard
! ATMEL 4Mhz, 8bit MCU, 512 bytes RAM, 8KB pgm flash
! 900Mhz Radio (RF Monolithics) 1-10+ m range
! ATMEL network pgming assist
! Radio Signal strength control and sensing
! I2C EPROM (logging)
! Base-station ready
! stackable expansion connector 
" all ports, i2c, pwr, clock?
Several sensor boards
! basic protoboard
! tiny weather station (temp,light,hum,press)
! vibrations (2d acc, temp, LIGHT)
! accelerometers
! magnetometers
Integrated ?quarter size? node
Basic Power Breakdown? 
But what does this mean?
! Lithium Battery runs for 35 hours at peak load and years at 
minimum load!
" three orders of magnitude difference!
! A one byte transmission uses the same energy as approx 
11000 cycles of computation.
! Idleness is not enough, sleep!
0 0 3 mA EE-Prom
0
0
0
4.5 mA (RX)
2 mA
Idle
0 200 µA Temperature
0 200 µA Photo Diode
0 4 mA LED?s
5 µA 7 mA (TX) Radio
5 µA 5 mA CPU
Sleep Active
Panasonic 
CR2354
560 mAh
Page 5


Sensor Platform: UCB Motes
Vision
Hardware overview
Software overview
The Systems Challenge
10 years from now the most of the network will 
be small, embedded devices
! today ship 200 M microproc/year, 8.5 B 
embedded proc/year
What?s the challenge?
! (a) They won?t be individually important like your 
PC, laptop, PDA, cell phone
" 100s-1,000s per person
" reside where no system admin can go
! (b) Highly Application Specific
! (c) Highly constrained resources (storage, energy)
! (d) Must be Robust despite changing environment
! (e) All of the above
Circulatory Net
Disaster Mgmt
Habitat Monitoring
Starting Point
Hands-on Experience with Large Networks of Tiny 
Network sensors
! small microcontroller, low-power radio, 
flash/eeprom
! sensor and power boards
! tiny event driven operating system
! intense constraints, freedom of abstraction
Re-explore entire range of networking issues
! encoding, framing, error handling
! media access control, transmission rate control
! discovery, multihop routing
! broadcast, multicast, aggregation
! active network capsule (reprogramming)
! localization, time synchronization
! security, network-wide protection
! density independent wake-up and proximity est.
Fundamentally new aspects in each
Key Characteristics of TNDs
Small physical size and low power consumption
=> Limited Physical Parallelism and Controller Hierarchy
=> primitive direct-to-device interface
Concurrency-intensive operation
! flow-thru, not wait-command-respond
=> must handle multiple inputs and outputs simultaneously
Diverse in Design and Usage
! application specific, not general purpose
! huge device variation
=> efficient modularity
=> migration across HW/SW boundary
Largely Unattended & Numerous
=> robust operation
=> narrow interfaces
?Mote??The Hardware
4Mhz, 8bit MCU (ATMEL)
512 bytes RAM, 8K ROM
900Mhz Radio (RF Monolithics)
10-100 ft. range
Temperature Sensor
Light Sensor
LED outputs
Serial Port
COTS Dust
weC Mote
Second Generation ?Mote?
Two Board Sandwich
! Main CPU board with Radio 
Communication
! Secondary Sensor Board
Allows for expansion and 
customization
! Current sensors include:  Acceleration, Magnetic 
Field, Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Light,  and 
RF Signal Strength.
! Can control RF transmission strength & Sense 
Reception Strength
Networked Sensor/Act Node
1? x 1.5? motherboard
! ATMEL 4Mhz, 8bit MCU, 512 bytes RAM, 8KB pgm flash
! 900Mhz Radio (RF Monolithics) 1-10+ m range
! ATMEL network pgming assist
! Radio Signal strength control and sensing
! I2C EPROM (logging)
! Base-station ready
! stackable expansion connector 
" all ports, i2c, pwr, clock?
Several sensor boards
! basic protoboard
! tiny weather station (temp,light,hum,press)
! vibrations (2d acc, temp, LIGHT)
! accelerometers
! magnetometers
Integrated ?quarter size? node
Basic Power Breakdown? 
But what does this mean?
! Lithium Battery runs for 35 hours at peak load and years at 
minimum load!
" three orders of magnitude difference!
! A one byte transmission uses the same energy as approx 
11000 cycles of computation.
! Idleness is not enough, sleep!
0 0 3 mA EE-Prom
0
0
0
4.5 mA (RX)
2 mA
Idle
0 200 µA Temperature
0 200 µA Photo Diode
0 4 mA LED?s
5 µA 7 mA (TX) Radio
5 µA 5 mA CPU
Sleep Active
Panasonic 
CR2354
560 mAh
Experimenting at Scale
An Operating System for Tiny Devices?
Would love to have theoretically-sound tools to go 
from req. to implementation, but...
Traditional approaches
! command processing loop (wait request, act, respond)
! monolithic event processing
! bring full thread/socket posix regime to platform
Alternative
! provide framework for concurrency and modularity
! never poll, never block
! interleaving flows, events, energy management
! => allow appropriate abstractions to emerge
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