Serial Input-Output Notes | EduRev

: Serial Input-Output Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Page 1 
1 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
CS/ECE 6780/5780 
Al Davis 
 Today’s topics: 
•? Non-volatile RAM 
•? a survey 
•? current and future technologies 
•? a bit of detail on how the technology works 
•? much of this material was developed with 
•? Christopher Hoover, HP Labs 
2 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Generic Taxonomy: V & NV 
•? Volatile (last lecture had the details) 
?? SRAM - 5 or 6 transistors per cell 
»? fast but costly & power hungry 
»? usage 
•? on chip - caches, register files, buffers, queues, etc. 
•? off chip usage now rare except in embedded space 
?? DRAM - 1 T & 1 C per cell (lots of details later in the term) 
»? focus on density and cost/bit 
•? too bad both power and delay properties are problematic 
»? usage - main memory 
•? EDRAM now moving on chip for large “last cache” duties 
»? specialty parts for mobile systems 
•? low-power 
•? self-refresh 
•? takes advantage of light usage 
»? battery backed DRAM - common in data-center 
Page 2


Page 1 
1 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
CS/ECE 6780/5780 
Al Davis 
 Today’s topics: 
•? Non-volatile RAM 
•? a survey 
•? current and future technologies 
•? a bit of detail on how the technology works 
•? much of this material was developed with 
•? Christopher Hoover, HP Labs 
2 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Generic Taxonomy: V & NV 
•? Volatile (last lecture had the details) 
?? SRAM - 5 or 6 transistors per cell 
»? fast but costly & power hungry 
»? usage 
•? on chip - caches, register files, buffers, queues, etc. 
•? off chip usage now rare except in embedded space 
?? DRAM - 1 T & 1 C per cell (lots of details later in the term) 
»? focus on density and cost/bit 
•? too bad both power and delay properties are problematic 
»? usage - main memory 
•? EDRAM now moving on chip for large “last cache” duties 
»? specialty parts for mobile systems 
•? low-power 
•? self-refresh 
•? takes advantage of light usage 
»? battery backed DRAM - common in data-center 
Page 2 
3 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NV 
•? Traditional non-volatile 
?? Magnetic Disk 
»? cheap 
»? mixed use: file system and scratch 
?? CD, DVD 
»? even cheaper per unit but less capacity 
»? media and SW distribution, personal archival 
?? Tape 
»? cheapest 
»? archival storage 
?? Solid state 
»? more spendy but faster 
•? PROM in various flavors - now primarily masked on chip 
•? FLASH has essentially taken over at the component level 
•? new contenders are on the horizon however 
–? focus of today’s discussion 
4 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NVRAM Alternatives 
Source: Pirovano ICMTD-2005 
Page 3


Page 1 
1 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
CS/ECE 6780/5780 
Al Davis 
 Today’s topics: 
•? Non-volatile RAM 
•? a survey 
•? current and future technologies 
•? a bit of detail on how the technology works 
•? much of this material was developed with 
•? Christopher Hoover, HP Labs 
2 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Generic Taxonomy: V & NV 
•? Volatile (last lecture had the details) 
?? SRAM - 5 or 6 transistors per cell 
»? fast but costly & power hungry 
»? usage 
•? on chip - caches, register files, buffers, queues, etc. 
•? off chip usage now rare except in embedded space 
?? DRAM - 1 T & 1 C per cell (lots of details later in the term) 
»? focus on density and cost/bit 
•? too bad both power and delay properties are problematic 
»? usage - main memory 
•? EDRAM now moving on chip for large “last cache” duties 
»? specialty parts for mobile systems 
•? low-power 
•? self-refresh 
•? takes advantage of light usage 
»? battery backed DRAM - common in data-center 
Page 2 
3 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NV 
•? Traditional non-volatile 
?? Magnetic Disk 
»? cheap 
»? mixed use: file system and scratch 
?? CD, DVD 
»? even cheaper per unit but less capacity 
»? media and SW distribution, personal archival 
?? Tape 
»? cheapest 
»? archival storage 
?? Solid state 
»? more spendy but faster 
•? PROM in various flavors - now primarily masked on chip 
•? FLASH has essentially taken over at the component level 
•? new contenders are on the horizon however 
–? focus of today’s discussion 
4 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NVRAM Alternatives 
Source: Pirovano ICMTD-2005 
Page 3 
5 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Commercial Aspects 
•? Recent reports a bit more gloomy 
?? due to world economy issues 
•? 2004 $16B - predicted $72B by 2012 
?? CAGR = combined annual growth rate 
»? critical metric from a business perspective 
?? NOR - 30% CAGR in ‘04, similar now but reports vary 
»? 1 Gb and 2 Gb packages 
?? NAND - 70% CAGR in ‘04 but now down to ~20% 
»? 8 - 64 Gb packages (3D) 
»? needs a write controller 
•? today it’s on the chip 
6 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NOR vs. NAND Geometry 
Source: Micron 
NAND: 4F
2
 
NOR: 10F
2
 
DRAM: 6-8F
2
 
Page 4


Page 1 
1 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
CS/ECE 6780/5780 
Al Davis 
 Today’s topics: 
•? Non-volatile RAM 
•? a survey 
•? current and future technologies 
•? a bit of detail on how the technology works 
•? much of this material was developed with 
•? Christopher Hoover, HP Labs 
2 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Generic Taxonomy: V & NV 
•? Volatile (last lecture had the details) 
?? SRAM - 5 or 6 transistors per cell 
»? fast but costly & power hungry 
»? usage 
•? on chip - caches, register files, buffers, queues, etc. 
•? off chip usage now rare except in embedded space 
?? DRAM - 1 T & 1 C per cell (lots of details later in the term) 
»? focus on density and cost/bit 
•? too bad both power and delay properties are problematic 
»? usage - main memory 
•? EDRAM now moving on chip for large “last cache” duties 
»? specialty parts for mobile systems 
•? low-power 
•? self-refresh 
•? takes advantage of light usage 
»? battery backed DRAM - common in data-center 
Page 2 
3 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NV 
•? Traditional non-volatile 
?? Magnetic Disk 
»? cheap 
»? mixed use: file system and scratch 
?? CD, DVD 
»? even cheaper per unit but less capacity 
»? media and SW distribution, personal archival 
?? Tape 
»? cheapest 
»? archival storage 
?? Solid state 
»? more spendy but faster 
•? PROM in various flavors - now primarily masked on chip 
•? FLASH has essentially taken over at the component level 
•? new contenders are on the horizon however 
–? focus of today’s discussion 
4 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NVRAM Alternatives 
Source: Pirovano ICMTD-2005 
Page 3 
5 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Commercial Aspects 
•? Recent reports a bit more gloomy 
?? due to world economy issues 
•? 2004 $16B - predicted $72B by 2012 
?? CAGR = combined annual growth rate 
»? critical metric from a business perspective 
?? NOR - 30% CAGR in ‘04, similar now but reports vary 
»? 1 Gb and 2 Gb packages 
?? NAND - 70% CAGR in ‘04 but now down to ~20% 
»? 8 - 64 Gb packages (3D) 
»? needs a write controller 
•? today it’s on the chip 
6 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NOR vs. NAND Geometry 
Source: Micron 
NAND: 4F
2
 
NOR: 10F
2
 
DRAM: 6-8F
2
 
Page 4 
7 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NAND vs. NOR Properties 
Source: Micron 
8 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Flash Component 
Source: Micron 
Page 5


Page 1 
1 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
CS/ECE 6780/5780 
Al Davis 
 Today’s topics: 
•? Non-volatile RAM 
•? a survey 
•? current and future technologies 
•? a bit of detail on how the technology works 
•? much of this material was developed with 
•? Christopher Hoover, HP Labs 
2 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Generic Taxonomy: V & NV 
•? Volatile (last lecture had the details) 
?? SRAM - 5 or 6 transistors per cell 
»? fast but costly & power hungry 
»? usage 
•? on chip - caches, register files, buffers, queues, etc. 
•? off chip usage now rare except in embedded space 
?? DRAM - 1 T & 1 C per cell (lots of details later in the term) 
»? focus on density and cost/bit 
•? too bad both power and delay properties are problematic 
»? usage - main memory 
•? EDRAM now moving on chip for large “last cache” duties 
»? specialty parts for mobile systems 
•? low-power 
•? self-refresh 
•? takes advantage of light usage 
»? battery backed DRAM - common in data-center 
Page 2 
3 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NV 
•? Traditional non-volatile 
?? Magnetic Disk 
»? cheap 
»? mixed use: file system and scratch 
?? CD, DVD 
»? even cheaper per unit but less capacity 
»? media and SW distribution, personal archival 
?? Tape 
»? cheapest 
»? archival storage 
?? Solid state 
»? more spendy but faster 
•? PROM in various flavors - now primarily masked on chip 
•? FLASH has essentially taken over at the component level 
•? new contenders are on the horizon however 
–? focus of today’s discussion 
4 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NVRAM Alternatives 
Source: Pirovano ICMTD-2005 
Page 3 
5 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Commercial Aspects 
•? Recent reports a bit more gloomy 
?? due to world economy issues 
•? 2004 $16B - predicted $72B by 2012 
?? CAGR = combined annual growth rate 
»? critical metric from a business perspective 
?? NOR - 30% CAGR in ‘04, similar now but reports vary 
»? 1 Gb and 2 Gb packages 
?? NAND - 70% CAGR in ‘04 but now down to ~20% 
»? 8 - 64 Gb packages (3D) 
»? needs a write controller 
•? today it’s on the chip 
6 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NOR vs. NAND Geometry 
Source: Micron 
NAND: 4F
2
 
NOR: 10F
2
 
DRAM: 6-8F
2
 
Page 4 
7 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NAND vs. NOR Properties 
Source: Micron 
8 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
Flash Component 
Source: Micron 
Page 5 
9 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NAND Trends 
Source: Shin, 2005 Symp. VLSI Ckts 
10 CS 5780 
School of Computing 
University of Utah 
NAND vs. DRAM 2007 
•? DRAM 
?? 65 nm process 
?? 2 Gb on 100 mm
2
 die 
?? 1.94 Gb/cm
2
 
•? NAND SLC 
?? 56.7 nm process 
?? 4 Gb on 80.8 mm
2
 die 
?? 4.3 Gb/cm
2
 
•? NAND MLC (2 bits/cell) 
?? 56.7 nm process 
?? 8 Gb on 80.8 mm
2
 die 
?? 11 Gb/cm
2
 
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