Q.101 Sulpha drugs work like antibiotics but they are not antibiotics explain?
Answer: Sulpha drugs can kill or prevent the growth of micro organisms like antibiotics. But they are not antibiotics in the sense that these are not produced by microorganisms.
Q.102 How cimetidine controls acidity of stomach?
Answer: Cimetidine was designed to prevent the interaction of histamine with the receptors present in the stomach wall. This resulted in release of lesser amount of acid and acidity is controlled.
Q.103 What are analgesics? How do they differ from antipyretics?
Answer: Analgesics are the substances which are given to relieve body pains. These may be both narcotics (habit forming) and non-narcotics (not habit forming). Antipyretics are the substances used to bring body temperature in case of high fever.
Q.104 Give two examples of analgesics and antipyretics.
Answer: Analgesics :Butazolidine, Novalgin Antipyretics : Aspirin, paracetamol.
Q.105 Which substance can act both as analgesic as well as antipyretic?
Answer: Aspirin can act both as analgesic as well as antipyretic.
Q.106 Why should not aspirin be taken empty stomach?
Answer: Aspirin i.e., acetyl salicylic acid when taken empty stomach may undergo hydrolysis to give salicylic acid. The acid can cause ulcers which are quite painful and may even bleed in some cases.
Q.107 How do tranquilizers act? Give two examples.
Answer: Tranquilizers are the substances which are given to the patients suffering from anxiety and mental tension. They can act on the nervous system and reduce tension. These can even result in sleep and are the constituents of many sleeping pills. Tranquilizers are quite effective in case of patients of mental depression. Equanil and Luminal are the commonly used tranquilizers.
Q.108 What is the role of antiseptics? How do they differ from disinfectants?
Answer: Antiseptics are the chemical substances which prevent the growth of micro-organisms causing infection and also kill them. These are applied on living tissues particularly in open wounds and cuts so that bacterial infection may not take place. Antiseptics also constitute certain deodorants and breath purifier. The commonly used antiseptics are phenol, dettol, iodoform. Gentian violet and Methylene blue. Disinfectant can also behave in the same way as antiseptics. However, these are harmful to the living tissues and are therefore, used to disinfect floors, toilets instruments. etc.
Q.109 What are the constituents of dettol?
Answer: The constituents of dettol are chloroxylenol and terpineol dissolved in a suitable solvent.
Q.110 Why is bithionol added to soap?
Answer: Bithionol is added to soap to impart antiseptic properties.
Q.111 How can phenol behave both as antiseptic as well as disinfectant?
Answer: In some cases, the dilute solution of certain substances can act as antiseptics while the concentrated solutions may behave as disinfectants. For example, 0.2 percent solution of phenol is an antiseptic and nearly 1.0 percent which is more concentrated, can act as disinfectant.
Q.112 How is acidity caused? What is the role of antacids?
Answer: The acidity results because of the release of extra gastric acids which tend to decrease the pH level. This may lead to the formation of ulcers in the stomach in most of the patients. The role of the antacids is to neutralise the acidicity and raise the pH level. They may also act as buffers i.e., they may not allow the pH level to fall when extra acids are released. Liquid preparation of the antacids are normally more effective than when these are given in the solid form.
Q.113 Why is it preferable to take up antacids after meals?
Answer: Generally antacids should be taken after meals because their action is then prolonged. These should not be given along with other drugs particularly tetracycline antibiotics since they slow down their absorption by the body.
Q.114 In what way prolonged use of antacids is harmful?
Answer: Prolonged use of antacid should be avoided since it may lead to constipation.
Q.115 Pick out the odd one from the following compounds on the basis of medicinal properties Luminal, seconal, phenacetin, equanil.
Answer: Except for phenacetin which is antipyretic, all others are tranquilizers.
Q.116 Why is use of penicillin generally discouraged?
Answer: The use of penicillin is generally discouraged because these are not broad spectrum in nature and may also cause allergic reactions in many patients.
Q.117 Soap is a generally weak antiseptic. What substances can be added to soap to improve its antiseptic action?
Answer: Bithionol can be added to soap to improve antiseptic action.
Q.118 What is antibiotic? Give the name of the first antibiotic discovered.
Answer: Antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, moulds) that can inhibit the growth or even destroy other micro-organisms which cause disease. Penicillin was the first antibiotic discovered by Alexander Flemming in 1929.
Q.119 Sulpha drugs work like antibiotics but they are not antibiotics. Is this a valid statement and why?
Answer: This is a valid statement since sulpha drugs like antibiotics kill microorganisms. However, sulpha drugs are purely synthetic but antibiotics may be either wholly or partially obtained from microorganisms. For example, penicillin is wholly obtained from microorganisms while amoxycillin and ampicillin are semi-synthetic.
Q.120 Pick out the odd ones from among the following compounds on the basis of their medicinal properties. (i) Luminal, seconal, phenacetin, equanil (ii) Chloroxylenol, phenol, chloramphenicol, bithional.
Answer: (i) Phenacetin is an antipyretic while the remaining three are tranquillisers. (ii) Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic while the remaining three are antiseptics.