Question.1. Define industry.
Answer. Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or provision of services.
Question.2. Name three common methods of classifying industries.
Answer. Industries are classified according to raw material used, size and ownership.
Question.3. Expand the abbreviation AMUL. Where are its headquarters?
Answer. Anand Milk Union Limited. Its headquarters are in Anand, Gujarat.
Question.4. Name four common processes involved in a textile industry.
Answer. Ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing are processes involved in a textile industry.
Question.5. Name an industrial region in northern India.
Answer. The Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region is an industrial region in northern India.
Question.6. Name some elements alloyed with steel.
Answer. Aluminium, nickel and copper are elements that are alloyed with steel.
Question.7. What products do industrial plants in Jamshedpur produce?
Answer. Industrial plants produce chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, machinery, tinplate, etc.
Question.8. What is the link between the mines and the industry in Pittsburgh?
Answer. The Great Lakes of North America lie between the mines and industrial plant in Pittsburgh.
Question.9. Name two natural fibres and two human-made fibres.
Answer. Two natural fibres: wool, silk. Two human-made fibres: nylon, polyester.
Question.10 .Give a reason for the fact that cotton textile industry in India could not compete with that in the West initially.
Answer. The production of hand woven cotton textile in India was expensive and time-consuming, so it could not compete with the Western standards.
Question.11. What industries have started replacing the textile industry in Osaka?
Answer. Iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment and cement industry have begun to replace the textile industry in Osaka.
Question.12. Why is Bangalore called “Silicon Plateau”?
Answer. Bangalore is called Silicon Plateau because of the IT industry there, and the word “plateau” refers to the Deccan Plateau where it is located.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Question.1. Describe briefly the classification of industries on basis of raw material used.
Answer. On the basis of raw material used, industries are classified into agro, mineral, marine and forest-based. The raw material of agro-based industries consists of plant and animal based products. Some examples are food processing, cotton textile industry and leather industry. The raw material used in mineral- based industries consists of mineral ores. An example: iron and steel industry.
Marine-based industries use products obtained from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Sea food industry is one such industry.
A forest-based industry uses forest produce as raw material. Examples are paper industry and furniture.
Question.2. Describe briefly the classification of industries on basis of ownership.
Answer. On the basis of ownership, industries are classified into private sector, state owned (public sector), joint sector and cooperative sector. Private sector industries are owned by individuals or a group of individuals. Public sector industries are owned by the government. Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals. Maruti Udyog is an example of such an industry. Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or-suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. AMUL is one such industry.
Question.3. Describe the inputs, processes and outputs in an industrial system with an example.
Answer. An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs. Raw materials, labour, costs, transport, power and infrastructure are inputs. In a cotton textile industry for example, inputs are cotton, human labour, transport cost, etc. Processes are activities done to convert raw material into finished products. In a cotton textile industry, ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, etc are processes. The finished product and all profits earned are the outputs. In a cotton textile industry, the outputs are clothes we wear.
Question.4. Give examples of industrial regions in India and the world.
Answer. The major industrial areas of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia. In India, major industrial regions are Mumbai-Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chhotanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram industrial cluster.
Question.5. Write the properties and significance of steel.
Answer. Steel has these properties: it is tough, it can easily be shaped (malleability), cut or made into wire (ductility). Adding certain other elements makes it harder, tougher, and rust-retention capability.
Steel is the backbone of modern industry. We use a lot of steel objects in daily life. Ships, trains and most other vehicles, tiny needles and safety pins, machinery and equipment, buildings, etc utilise steel as a main or sole constituent.
Question.6. What factors supported Sakchi being chosen to set up the steel plant by TISCO?
Answer. Sakchi was chosen for various reasons. It was close to the Kalimati Railway Station. It was also close to iron ore, coal and manganese deposits. Kolkata, a source of large market, was not faraway. Jharia coal fields, and limestone, dolomite, limestone and manganese from Orissa and Chhattisgarh were easily accessible. The nearby rivers (Kharkai and Subamarekha) provided sufficient water supply.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Question.1. Describe the cotton textile industry with special reference to its history and spread in India.
Answer. Cotton is a natural fibre crop. The cotton textile industry is the industry which involves in making clothes out of the fibre. It is one of the oldest industries of the world. India has a glorious history of producing excellent quality cotton textiles. The Muslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam,
Calicos of Calicut and gold-wrought cotton of Burhanpur, Vadodara and Surat had world-famous quality and design. The traditional Indian cotton textile industry, however, could not compete with the Western textile mills, due to the high cost of the hand woven textile. The process involved, moreover, was time-consuming.
The first successful mechanised textile mill in India was established in Mumbai in 1854. The factors that led to the success were the warm and moist climate, the presence of a nearby port for importing machinery, the availability of raw material and skilled labour. Humidity was a main reason why the industry was initially limited to Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Today the industry has spread to various other parts of the country, due to the artificial production of humidity. The important cotton textile centres are in Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry and Panipat.
Question.2. Write short notes on (a) iron and steel industry in Pittsburgh and (b) cotton textile industry in Osaka.
Answer.(a) Pittsburgh is an important steel city in the USA. Most raw materials such as coal are available locally. Iron ore is brought from the iron mines in Minnesota. The shipping of ore is also a convenient pathway: the Great Lakes of North America. From the lakes to the industrial area, trains are there to carry the ore. Rivers like the Ohio, the Monogahela and the Allegheny provide adequate water supply.Finished steel is transported to the market by both land and water routes.
(b) Osaka is an important textile centre in Japan. It is called the “Manchester of Japan”. Like every important centre, geographical factors played an important role in the establishment of industry here. The plains around Osaka meant land was easily available for growth of cotton mills. Warm and humid climate is well suited to the spinning and weaving of cotton. The river Yodo provides adequate water supply. Easily available labour and location of port are also significant factors. The industry however depends completely on imports. The finished product is exported and is not very expensive.