Q1: Define sanctuary and national parks with examples.
Ans: A wildlife sanctuary is an area where animal habitats and their surroundings are protected from any sort of disturbance. The capturing, killing and poaching of animals is strictly prohibited in these regions. For Examples: Sanjay Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, etc.
National Park is an area reserved for wildlife where they can freely use the habitats and natural resource. National park contains extremely important habitats and species. This is protected areas in which human interference are not allowed. For Examples: Corbett National Park, Sunderban National Park, etc.
Q2: Explain deforestation and its causes.
Ans: Deforestation means clearing the forest or stands of trees, and using that land for other purposes.
Following are the main causes of deforestation:
Q3: What are the consequences of deforestation?
Ans: Consequences of deforestation:
1. Soil erosion
2. Loss of biodiversity
3. Floods and droughts
4. Climate change due to global warming
5. Disruption of water cycle
Q4: What are the effects of deforestation on soil?
Ans: Deforestation causes soil erosion. Because the roots of trees hold soil tightly and prevent the soil from erosion. If we cut trees the roots leave the soil and so that the soil will erode. When forest is cut down, nothing is there to protect the soil. Once the forests are cut down, the erosive effects are much worse than on flat land. Erosion and rainfall in such places can cause huge mudslides. This can cause serious land degradation. Loss of trees and other vegetation may cause soil erosion.
Q5: What is draught and desertification?
Ans: Because of deforestation the temperature on earth may increase, and this may disturb the natural water cycle and may reduce rainfall, this condition is called draught.
Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky layers. This soil has less humus and is less fertile. Gradually the fertile land gets converted into deserts. It is called desertification
Q6: What do you mean by biosphere reserves?
Ans: Biosphere reserves are the large areas of protected land meant for conservation of wild life, plants and animals resources and traditional life of the tribal residing in that area. It helps to maintain biodiversity and culture of that area.
Example: Pachmarhi biosphere reserves
Q7: What are the efforts of government regarding taking care of forests and animals?
Ans: The government lays down various rules, methods and policies for protection and conservation of wild life. Government are focussing on wildlife sanctuaries, national park, and biosphere reserves for conservation of plants and animals present in that area.
Q8: Name the national park and wildlife sanctuaries of Pachmarhi biosphere reserves.
Ans: National park named Satpura and two wildlife sanctuaries named as Bori and Pachmarhi
Q9: What is flora and fauna?
Ans: The plants and animals found in a particular area are termed flora and fauna of that area. Sal, teak, mango, etc. are the flora and barking deer, cheetah, leopard, wild dog, wolf, etc. are examples of the fauna.
Q10: List the factors disturbing biodiversity of a particular area.
Ans: Factors disturbing the biodiversity of a particular area are:
2. Air pollution(poisonous gases, smoke from vehicles)
4. Poaching of animals
Q11: How can we prevent biodiversity from getting disturbed?
Ans: First of all by promoting afforestation that is by planting more and more plants, then by following rules and regulations made by government for prevention and conservation of these biodiversity.
Q12: What do you mean by endemic species?
Ans: Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area. They are not naturally found anywhere else. A particular type of animal or plant may be endemic to a zone, a state or a country. Wild mango and Sal are two examples of the endemic flora. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrel are endemic fauna.
Q13: What are the factors affecting natural habitat of endemic species?
Ans: Following are the factors affecting natural habitat:
Q14: Explain species.
Ans: Species is a group of population residing together in a particular area and are capable of interbreeding; the members of a species are capable of reproduction by mating with the members of their own species and not with member of other species.
Q15: Discuss wild life sanctuaries and its importance.
Ans: A wildlife sanctuary is an area where animal habitats and their surroundings are protected from any sort of disturbance. The capturing, killing and poaching of animals is strictly prohibited in these regions.
They aim at providing a comfortable living to the animals. India has beautiful wildlife sanctuaries, with dense forests, large rivers, high and beautiful mountains.
Q16: Discuss National Parks and its importance.
Ans: National Park is an area reserved for wildlife where they can freely use the habitats and natural resource. Like Kaziranga National Park, Corbett National Park, etc. National park contains extremely important habitats and species. This is protected areas in which human interference are not allowed.
The main aim of a National Park is
Q17: What was the aim of launching project tiger by government?
Ans: Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation program administrated by National Tiger Conservation Authority in India since 1973. Project Tiger program is specially start for the protection of Tigers in India. The main aim behind this project was to protect and increase the tiger population of the country.
Q18: Why some animals are called endangered animals?
Ans: Those animals which are facing high risk of becoming extinct are called endangered animals. The main reason for this is their diminishing number and they are threatened by changing environmental or predation parameter. Example: Tiger
Q19: Why dinosaur is called extinct animal?
Ans: Dinosaur is no longer living, because of disturbance in its natural habitat that causes difficulty in its survival and finally it gets extinct.
Q20: Name some of the animals that are in danger of becoming extinct.
Ans: Tiger, Panda, some small animals like frog, lizard etc
Q21: Define ecosystem.
Ans: All living and non-living components of environment are together called ecosystem, it includes plants, animals, and microorganisms in an area along with non-living components such as climate, soil, rivers etc.
Q22: Write short notes on Red Data Book.
Ans: The book which keeps the record of all endangered species including plants and animals. Red Data Book is different for animals, plants and other species. They are now being published in many different countries and provide useful information on the threat status of the species.
Q23: What do you understand by migration?
Ans: Migration is the behaviour of animals of flying in far away areas every year during a particular time because of change in climatic condition. Birds fly for laying eggs as weather in their natural habitat is not suitable for their survival and for laying eggs. Such birds are called migratory birds. For example: S Flamingos, Siberian Cranes and Night heron.
Q24: Why is recycling of paper important?
Ans: About seventeen full grown trees are required to produce one tonne of paper. Paper can be recycled around five to seven times for use. We should save, reuse and recycle paper to save not only trees but also to save the energy, water and chemicals used to make paper.
Q25: Explain reforestation and its useful effects.
Ans: Reforestation is the restocking of destroyed forests by planting new trees. We should plant more and more trees. We have already caused a lot of damage to our forests. If we have to regain our green wealth, reforestation is the only option. Reforestation has following advantages: