Q1. Is begging an economic activity?
No. Begging is a non-economic activity. Two reasons can be given in support of it. One, the beggar receives money without doing anything. Second, begging is an unlawful activity and cannot become an economic activity.
Begging - An Uneconomical Activity
Q2. Why are domestic services performed by women not treated as economic activities?
Domestic Services by Women.
In India, most women generally look after domestic affairs like cooking food, washing clothes, cleaning utensils, looking after children, etc. They are not treated as economic/productive activities. This is mainly because of two reasons :
- Such activities are performed out of love and affection and hence their valuation is not possible.
- They do not add to the flow of goods and services in the economy.
Q3. Are the following activities economic or non-economic activities? Give reasons.
(a) Vilas sells fish in the village market.
(b) Vilas cooks food for his family.
(c) Sakal works in a private firm.
(d) Sakal looks after his younger brother and sister.
(a) It is an economic activity, as it involves remuneration.
(b) It is a non-economic activity, as it is a domestic service.
(c) It is an economic activity, as it is done in expectation of monetary reward.
(d) It is a non-economic activity, as it is done out of love and affection.
Q4. Differentiate between Market Activities and Non-Market Activities.
Difference between Market Activities and Non-Market Activities. Economic activities can be classified into market activities and non-market activities.
Market Activities Market activities involve remuneration to anyone who performs the activity. These include the production of goods and services for sale in the market. On the other hand, non-market activities are the production activities performed for self-consumption. These include consumption and processing of primary products and own account production of fixed assets.
Q5. Differentiate between voluntary and involuntary unemployment. Give an example.
A person is said to be unemployed when he is able and willing to work at the prevailing wage rate but does not find work. This is involuntary unemployment. If some persons are voluntarily unemployed (i.e., they prefer to remain out of work at prevailing wage rates) they will not be treated as unemployed. This is voluntary unemployment.
Q6. Distinguish between the labour force and workforce.
Labour force of a country includes all those persons in the age group of 15-60, who are actually working or willing to work.
Labour ForceThe workforce, on the other hand, consists of persons who are actually engaged in some kind of work and excludes those who are willing to work but do not find work. Thus, the difference between the two (i.e. labour force and workforce) is the number of persons unemployed.
Q7. What is the nature of unemployment as found in India?
Nature of unemployment in India.
In India, unemployment is widespread. Unemployment is found both in its rural and urban areas. There is seasonal and disguised unemployment in its rural areas. People here are dependent on agriculture. Certain months do not provide much work to the people depending upon agriculture.
In urban areas, educated unemployment has become a serious problem. Many educated youths are not able to find jobs. Unemployment among graduates and post-graduates has increased faster than among the matriculates.
Q8. ‘Unemployment is an economic as well as a social evil.’ Explain the statement.
Unemployment — A Serious Problem
Today, unemployment is considered one of the most threatening problems before the country.
Society is deprived of the goods and services that the unemployed people could have produced.
Unemployment among educated persons is more serious. This is due to investments made in them.
Unemployment is not only an economic evil, it is a social problem too.
Unemployment spreads social unrest and tension as unemployed people are a frustrated class of society.
Q9. Discuss the factors responsible for the distribution of population in India.
Physical factors like shape and height of land, resources, climate etc. that affect the distribution of population in India like;
Resources: Areas rich in resources (e.g., coal, oil, wood etc.) tend to be densely populated like western Europe.
Shape and height of land: Low land which is flat, e.g., Ganges valley in India.
Climate: Areas with moderate temperature climates tend to be densely populated as there is enough rain and heat to grow crops like the U.K.
Human factors: Political, social and economic factors also affect the distribution of population in India like good job opportunities encourage high population densities, particularly in large cities like Mumbai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad having dense populations. Countries with stable governments tend to have high population density.
Q10. Why is human resource the most important resource? What steps can be taken to improve the quality of human resource? How does an improved quality of human resource help in establishing a virtuous cycle?
- Existing 'human resource' is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, which adds to the productive power of the country just like 'physical capital formation'. So human resource is the most important resource.
- Steps to be taken to improve the quality of human resource:
The quality of human resource can be improved through better education, food and health facilities. The quality of population depends upon the literacy rate, health of a person indicated by life expectancy and skill formation acquired by the people of the country.
Role of improved quality of human resource in establishing a virtuous cycle:
- Better contribution to the productive power of the country: Existing human resource with good educational background can acquire specific skills in a better way and can contribute to national productivity more efficiently.
- Higher earnings and greater contributions to society: Improved quality of human resources can give higher rates of return in future in the form of higher earnings and greater contributions to society.
Q11. How does unemployment have a detrimental impact on the overall growth of an economy?
- Wastage of manpower resource: In case of unemployment, manpower who is an asset for an economy turns into a liability because utilisation of manpower becomes nil.
- Economic overload: Unemployment tends to increase economic overload because of the dependence of the unemployed on the working population increases. So the quality of life is adversely affected.
- Unemployment leads to social waste: The inability of educated people who are willing to work to find gainful employment implies a great social waste. An increase in employment is an indicator of a depressed economy.
Q12. What is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan? What are its objectives? [2010 (T-1)]
Write a short note on Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan' is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children of the age group 6-14 years by the year 2010.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan It is a time bound initiative of central government, in partnership with the states, the local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education. They also took an initiative to increase the enrollment of students in elementary education by introducing the schemes like mid-day meal.
Q13. Define human resource. When does a human resource become human capital?
The population of a country available for production activities is called human resource. Human resource becomes human capital when there is investment made in the form of education, training and medical care. When the existing 'human resource' is further developed by becoming more educated and healthy, we call it 'human capital formation'. Human capital adds to the productive power of the country. It is the stock of skills and productive knowledge embodied in them.
Q14. What is unemployment? How many types it is? Explain.
How will you explain the term unemployment?
What is meant by unemployment? Name the types of unemployment that exist in rural as well as urban areas.
Define unemployment and explain its two types.
Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the prevailing wages rates cannot find jobs. When we talk of unemployed people, we refer to those in the age group of 15-59 years. Children below 15 years of age and the old people above 60 are not considered while counting the number of unemployed.
In India, unemployment is found both in rural and urban areas. In rural areas, there is seasonal and disguised unemployment. In urban areas, there is educated unemployment.
Unemployment in rural areas:
- Disguised unemployment: When more persons are working in a job than actually required, the situation is termed as disguised unemployment. For example, if in an agricultural activity eight people are engaged but this work activity actually requires the services of five people, then three persons are extra. It these three people out of eight are withdrawn, total production will remain unaffected.
- Seasonal Unemployment: Seasonal unemployment occurs when people are able to find jobs only during some months of the year. This kind of unemployment is generally found in the agricultural sector.
Unemployment in the urban sector:
Educated unemployment: Many people who are unable to get employment even after having academic and professional qualifications are called educated unemployed.
Q15. What is Infant Mortality Rate? Why infant mortality rate is decreasing?
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is the total number of children dying under one year of age in a particular period of time.
Infant Mortality Rate is decreasing due to the following reasons:
- Increase in life expectancy due to improved medical facilities.
- Better protection of children from infection, ensuring nutrition along with mother and child care.
Q16. Why is human capital significant? Mention three points.
Why is the human resource important for development?
People are the greatest resource that a country has. Explain.
Human resource is a positive asset and a precious national resource that needs to be cherished, nurtured and developed with tenderness and care, coupled with dynamism. Contribution to national income: Skilled, educated and healthy population work for contribution in production activities. Better specialised labour can be easily adapted. Therefore, investment in human capital yields a return just like an investment in physical capital. Investment in human resources can give high rates of return in the future. This investment in people is the same as investment in land and capital. A child with proper education and health can yield a high return in the future in the form of higher earnings and greater contribution to society.
Q17. What does IMR stand for? Write its functions.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of children who die under one year of age in a year. IMR has come down from 147 in 1951 to 75 in 2000.
The function of IMR is that it indicates the increase in life expectancy and improvement in child care which is useful in assessing the future progress of the country. Reduction in infant mortality involves the protection of children from infection, ensuring nutrition along with mother and child care.
Q18. Explain in detail the disadvantages of unemployment.
Disadvantages of unemployment are:
- It leads to a wastage of manpower resources. It turns the population into a liability for the economy instead of asset. It even fills the country's youth with the feeling of hopelessness and despair.Unemployment
- It increases the economic load. The dependence of the unemployed on the working population increases. Unemployment adversely affects the quality of life of an individual as well as society.
- It affects the overall growth of an economy. It indicates a depressed economy and wastage of resources that could have been gainfully employed.
Q19. Give three measures taken by the government to improve literacy conditions in India.
- Opening of Navodaya Vidyalayas: Government has started to establish Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district vocational streams have been developed to equip a large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
- Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: It is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children of age group 6-14 years. It is an initiative of the central government in partnership with states, local government and the community for achieving the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
- Mid-day Meal Scheme: It is a programme aimed to encourage attendance and retention of children in schools and improve their nutritional status.
Q20. Suggest any three ways to transform population load into an asset.
The three ways to transform population load into an asset are :
- To improve literacy rate: Education provides new aspirations and developed values of life. Education helps in enhancing the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance.
- Health: The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. An increase in the longevity of life is an indicator of good quality of life marked by self-confidence. It involves the protection of children from infection, ensuring nutrition and mother and child care.
- Formation of skills: Providing vocational and skilled based education helps the people to get employment and therefore they contribute to the national income later on.
Q21. What are the two types of economic activity? State two characteristics of each.
Economic activities are those activities that add value to the national income. Economic activities have two parts:
- Market activities.
- Non-market activities.
- These are the activities performed for payment or profit.
- They include the production of goods and services.
- These involve production for self-consumption.
- It includes the consumption of primary production and production of fixed assets.
Q22. How are children of educated parents different from those of uneducated parents? Give three points of difference.