Short Answer Questions: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Class 9: Short Answer Questions: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

The document Short Answer Questions: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

Q.1. Describe what happened to Germany after its defeat in the First World War. (CBSE 2010)

Ans. World War I, ended with the Allies defeating Germany and the Central powers in November 1918. The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating treaty. Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population, 13 percent of its territories, 75 percent of its iron, and 26 percent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark, and Lithuania. The Allied Powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its power. Germany was forced to pay compensation amounting to 6 billion. The Allied armies also occupied the resource-rich Rhineland for much of the 1920s.


Q.2. Give four reasons for Hitler’s rise to power.
OR
Discuss the factors contributing to the meteoric rise of Hitler. [2010 (T-1)]

Ans. (i) The crisis in the economy, polity, and society formed the background of Hitler’s rise to power. Born in 1889 in Austria, Hitler spent his youth in poverty. The German defeat horrified him and the Versailles Treaty made him furious (1st reason). In 1919, he joined a small group called the German Workers’ Party. He subsequently took over the organisation and renamed it the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party. This party came to be known as the Nazi Party. Hitler assured the Germans about the establishment of the old prestige.

(ii) The economic crisis: Germany had to face a great economic crisis after the First World War. Many soldiers were no longer in service, so they became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined. Germany was in the grip of unemployment and starvation.

(iii) Exploiting the mentality of the Germans: The Germans had no faith in democracy. It was against their culture and tradition. They at once gave their support to a strong man like Hitler who could transfer their dreams into reality.

(iv) Making the best use of his personal qualities: Hitler was a powerful orator, an able organiser.


Q.3. Explain any three of the following terms :
(a) Lebensraum
(b) A Racial State
(c) Propaganda
(d) Ghettoisation and concentration camps
(e) Jungvolk

Ans. (a) Lebensraum: It was an aspect of Hitler’s Ideology that is related to the geopolitical concept of living space. He believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement. This would enhance the area of the mother country while enabling the settlers on new lands to retain an intimate link with the place of their origin.

(b) Racial State: Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure Germans by physically eliminating all those who were seen as ‘undesirable’ in the extended empire. Nazis only wanted a society of ‘pure and healthy Nordic Aryans’. They alone were considered ‘desirable’.

(c) Propaganda: The Nazi regime used language and media with care and often to great effect. They used films, pictures, radio, posters, etc. to spread hatred for the Jews. Propaganda is a specific type of message directly aimed at influencing the opinion of people through the use of posters, films, speeches, etc.

(d) Ghettoisation and Concentration Camps: From September 1941, all Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David on their breasts. This identity mark was stamped on their passport, all legal documents, and houses. They were kept in Jewish houses in Germany and in ghettos like Lodz and Warsaw in the east. These became sites of extreme misery and poverty. The largest Nazi concentration camp is identified with Auschwitz (Poland). Built in 1940, the camp served as a major element in the perpetration of the holocaust, killing around 16 million people of whom 90 % were Jews. The camp was surrounded by barbed wire. The camp held 100,000 prisoners at one time. The camp’s main purpose was not internment but extermination. For this purpose, the camp was equipped with four gas chambers, and each chamber could hold 2,500 people at one time.

(e) Jungvolk: These were Nazi youth groups for children below 14 years of age. Youth organisations were made responsible for educating German youth in ‘the spirit of National Socialism’. Ten-year-olds had to enter Jungvolk. At 14, all boys had to join the Nazi youth organisation.


Q.4. Explain the role of women in Hitler’s Germany.
 OR
What responsibilities did the Nazi state impose on women? (CBSE 2010)

Ans. According to Hitler’s ideology, women were radically different from men. The democratic idea of equal rights for men and women was wrong and would destroy society. While boys were taught to be aggressive, masculine, and steel-hearted, girls were told that they had to become good mothers and rear pure-blooded Aryan children. Girls had to maintain the purity of the race, distance themselves from Jews, look after the home, and teach their children Nazi values. They had to be the bearers of the Aryan culture and race. Hitler said, ‘‘In my state, the mother is the most important citizen.’’ But in Nazi Germany, all mothers were not treated equally.


Q.5. Explain the main views of Hitler as expressed in his book 'Mein Kampf'.

Ans. Adolf Hitler wrote a book entitled ‘Mein Kampf’. Its literal meaning is ‘My Struggle’. This book expresses some of the most monstrous ideas of the Nazi movement. He glorified the use of force and brutalities and the rule by a great leader and ridiculed internationalism, peace, and democracy. These principles were accepted by all followers of Hitler. Throughout Germany, an atmosphere of terror was created. Hitler glorified violent nationalism and extolled war. He wrote this book at the age of 35, it is an autobiographical book; in this book, Hitler has poured out his hatred for democracy, Marxism and the Jews. He also revealed his bitterness over German surrender in World War I.Short Answer Questions: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Q.6. Why is Nazism considered a calamity not only for Germany but for entire Europe?
OR
How did Hitler destroy democracy in Germany? Explain. [2010 (T-1)]

Ans. Nazi ideology specified that there was a racial hierarchy and no equality between people. The blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while the Jews were located somewhere on the lowest rung of the ladder. The number of people killed by Nazi Germany was 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies,
1 million Polish civilians, 70,000 Germans. Nazism glorified the use of force and brutality. It ridiculed internationalism, peace, and democracy. Nazi Germany became the most dreaded criminal state. Hitler chose war as the way out of approaching the economic crisis. Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England in September 1940.


Q.7. ‘The German economy was the worst hit by the economic crisis.’ Discuss.

Ans. The image of German carrying cartloads of currency notes to buy a loaf of bread was widely publicised evoking worldwide sympathy. This crisis came to be known as ‘‘hyperinflation’’, a situation when prices rise phenomenally high. The German economy was the worst hit by the economic crisis. Industrial production was reduced to 40 percent of the 1929 level. Workers lost their jobs or were paid reduced wages. The number of the unemployed touched an unprecedented 6 million. On the streets of Germany, you could see men with placards around their necks saying, ‘‘willing to do any work.” The economic crisis created deep anxieties and fears in people. The middle classes, especially the salaried employees and pensioners saw their savings diminish when the currency lost its value. Small businessmen, the self-employed, and retailers suffered as their businesses got ruined. Only organised workers could manage to keep their heads above water. The big business was in crisis, the peasantry was affected by a sharp fall in agricultural prices.


Q.8. Explain how the fragility of the Weimar Republic led to the rise of Hitler.

Ans. The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was the biggest problem faced by the Weimar Republic. Due to this treaty, Weimar Republic was not received well by its own people, i.e. the Germans, largely because of the harsh terms it was forced to accept after Germany’s defeat in the First World War. At this time started the Nazi movement. It believed in the glorification of the state. It also believed in war, colonialism, militarism, and expansionism. It was opposed to democracy, liberalism, socialism, world peace and internationalism. The unpopularity of the Weimar Republic paved the way for the rise of Nazism and Hitler. Hitler was a tireless worker and an able organiser. He was an effective orator, he promised to save the country. He won the nationalists by promising to vindicate national honour by repudiating the Treaty of Versailles. The middle class was assured economic relief and the disbanded soldiers’ employment. This led to the rise and popularity of Hitler and Nazism in Germany.


Q.9. ‘Nazi ideology was synonymous with Hitler’s world view.’ Explain. (CBSE 2010)

Ans. ‘Nazi’ ideology was synonymous with Hitler’s world view. It said and meant that there was no equality between people but only a racial hierarchy. According to it, blond, blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest rung of the ladder. They came to be regarded as anti-race. Darwin was a natural scientist, who tried to explain the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Herbert Spencer later added the idea of the ‘survival of the fittest.’ Their ideas were borrowed by the Nazis – whose argument was, the “strongest race would survive and the weak ones would perish. The Aryan race was the finest. It had to retain its purity, became stronger, and dominate the world.” The other aspect of Hitler’s ideology was the concept of ‘lebensraum’ or living space meaning new territories should be acquired, as it would enhance the area of the mother country.


Q.10. Explain the social utopia of the Nazis.

Ans. According to Hitler and Nazi ideology, there was no equality between people, but only social hierarchy. In this view blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest rung. They came to be regarded as an anti-race, the arch enemies of the Aryans. Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating an exclusive racial community of pure German by physically eliminating all those who were seen as ‘undesirable’ in the extended empire. Nazis wanted a society of ‘pure and healthy Nordic Aryans’. They alone were considered ‘desirable’. Under the shadow of war, the Nazis proceeded to realise their murderous, racial ideal. Genocide and war became two sides of the same coin. Occupied Poland was divided up. Much of north-western Poland was annexed to Germany. Poles were forced to leave their homes and properties behind to be occupied by ethnic Germans brought in from occupied Europe. Poles were then herded like cattle in the other part called the ‘General Government’, the destination of all ‘undesirables’ of the empire. With some of the largest ghettos and gas chambers, the General Government also served as the killing field for the Jews.


Q.11. What happened in schools under Nazism?
OR
How were the schools in Germany 'cleansed' and 'purified' under Nazi rule? [2010 (T-1)]

Ans. All schools were cleansed and purified. This meant that teachers who were Jews or seen as politically unreliable were dismissed. Children were segregated — Germans and Jews could not sit together or play together. Later on the undesirable children — the Jews, the physically handicapped, gypsies — were thrown out of schools. In the 1940s, they were taken to gas chambers. Children in school were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews, and worship Hitler. Sports was given great importance. The function of sports was to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among children. Stereotypes of Jews were propagated through all classes. Schooling was a prolonged period of ideological training.


Q.12. ‘In my state, the mother is the most important citizen.’ Discuss this statement made by Hitler.

Ans. Though Hitler said that in my state the mother is the most important citizen, it was not true. In Nazi Germany, all mothers were not treated equally. Women who bore racially desirable children were awarded, while those who bore racially undesirable children were punished. Women who bore ‘desirable’ children were entitled to privileges and rewards. They were given special treatment in hospitals and concessions in shops and on theatre tickets and railway fares.


Q.13. What were the steps taken by Hitler as Chancellor to deal with the economic difficulties? Which two things symbolized the economic recovery of Germany? (CBSE 2010)

Ans. (i) First, Hitler assigned the responsibility of economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht, who aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work creation programme.

(ii) Hitler chose was as the way out of the approaching economic crisis. Resources were to be accumulated through the expansion of territory. The famous German highways and the people's car, the Volkswagen became the symbols of Germany's economic recovery.


Q.14. Describe the main provisions of the Treaty of Versailles? (CBSE 2010)

Ans. The Treaty of Versailles was a harsh and humiliating peace for the Germans.
(i) Germany lost all its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population.
(ii) 13 percent of its territories, 75 percent of its iron, and 26 percent of its coal to France.
(iii) Germany was demilitarised to weaken its power.
(iv) The war guilt clause held Germany responsible for war and damages the Allied countries suffered. It was forced to pay a compensation amounting to £6 billion.
(v) The Allied forces occupied the resource-rich Rhineland till the 1920s.


Q.15. How did the ordinary Germans react to Nazism? (CBSE 2010)

Ans. Many saw the world through Nazi eyes and spoke their mind in the Nazi language. They felt hatred and anger even when someone they thought looked like a Jew. They reported against suspected Jews and marked their houses. They believed Nazism would make them prosperous and happy. A large number of Germans were passive onlookers, too scared to act, to differ, or protest. They preferred to keep away. Only a few organised active resistance to Nazism.


Q.16. How did Hitler use scientific principles to further his ideology? Why was it incorrect? (CBSE 2010)

Ans. Refer to Question 3, NCERT Questions Para 1. Hitler borrowed from Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. Who emphasised the survival of the fittest theory. Hitler's ideology was simple – the strongest race would survive and weak ones will perish. The Aryan race was the finest, it had to retain its purity, become stronger and dominate the world. But both scientists never advocated human intervention in what they thought was a natural process of selection.


Q.17. Examine any three features of racial hierarchy that were promoted by Hitler in Germany under his Nazi ideology. [2010 (T-1)]

Ans. (i) According to Nazi ideology, there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy. In this view blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest rung.

(ii) Hitler's racism borrowed from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. Darwin believed in the theory of natural selection. Herbert Spencer added the idea of survival of the fittest.

(iii) The Nazis believed that the strongest race would survive and the weak would perish. The Aryan race was the finest. It had to retain its purity, become stronger and dominate the world.


Q.18. From whom did Hitler borrow his racist ideology? Explain. [2010 (T-1)]

Ans. Hitler borrowed his racist ideology from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. Darwin was a natural scientist who tried to explain the creation of plants and animals through the concept of evolution and natural selection. Herbert Spencer, later on, added the idea of survival of the fittest. According to this idea, only those species that survived on earth could adapt themselves to changing climatic conditions. Darwin never advocated human intervention in what he thought was a purely natural process of selection. However, his ideas were used by racist thinkers and politicians to justify imperial rule over conquered peoples.


Q.19. Why did Germany suffer from ‘‘Hyperinflation" in 1923? Who bailed her out from this situation? [2010 (T-1)]

Ans. Germany had fought the war largely on loans and had to pay war reparations in gold. This depleted gold reserves at a time resources were scarce. In 1923 Germany refused to pay and the French occupied Ruhr, to claim their coal. Germany retaliated with passive resistance and printed paper currency recklessly. With too much printed money in circulation, the value of the German mark fell. In April the US dollar was equal to 24,000 marks, in July 353,000 marks, and at 98,860,000 marks by December, the figure had run into trillions. As the value of the marks collapsed, prices of goods soared. This crisis came to be known as hyperinflation, a situation when prices rise phenomenally high.


Q.20. Why did the USA enter into the Second World War? [2010 (T-1)]

Ans. When the Second World War broke out, the US announced its neutrality. In July 1941, the Japanese had occupied Vietnam in Indo-China. In October, an even more aggressive government came to power in Japan. On 7 December 1941, the Japanese bombers attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbour in Hawaii. The US had expected a Japanese attack on the British and Dutch colonial possessions in the area and was completely taken by surprise. In the bombing, 188 aircraft and many battleships, cruisers, and other naval vessels of the US were destroyed and over 2000 sailors and soldiers killed. The US was angry at this development. On 8 December, the US declared war on Japan. On 11 December, Germany and Italy declared war on the US and the US declared war on Germany and Italy.


Q.21. What were the promises made by Hitler to the people of Germany? [2010 (T-1)]

Ans. He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles treaty and restore the dignity of the German people. He promised employment for those looking for work, and a secure future for the youth. He promised to weed out all foreign influences and resist all foreign conspiracies, against Germany.

The document Short Answer Questions: Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

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