Q.1. What are the choices that voters make in an election?
Ans. In an election, the voters make many choices :
(i) They can choose who will make laws for them.
(ii) They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
(iii) They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and law-making.
Q.2. What is the check on the political leaders which makes them serve the people?
Ans. The check on the political leaders comes from the need to serve the people if they want to win the next elections. Regular electoral competition provides incentives to political parties and leaders. They know that if they raise issues that people want to be raised, their popularity and chances of victory will increase in the next elections. But if they fail to satisfy the voters with their work, they will not be able to win again.
Q.3. Why is there a provision of reservation of seats in the legislatures? [Important]
Ans. The constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against the more influential contestants. So seats are reserved for them in the legislature.
Q.4. Mention the provisions laid down under the Model Code of Conduct to regulate the election campaign.
Ans. According to the Model Code of Conduct, no party can :
(i) Use any place of worship for election propaganda.
(ii) Use government vehicles, aircraft and officials for elections.
(iii) Once elections are announced ministers shall not lay foundation stones of any projects, take any big policy decisions or make any promises of providing public facilities.
Q.5. In which way does the Election Commission enjoy the same kind of independence as the judiciary?
Ans. The Election Commission enjoys the same kind of independence that the judiciary enjoys. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by the President of India. But once appointed, he is not answerable to the President or the government. Even if the ruling party or the government does not like what the Commission does, it is virtually impossible for it to remove the CEC.
Q.6. What are the trends of popular participation in India?
Ans. The trends of popular participation in India are :
(i) People’s participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout figures. In India the turnout over all these years has either remained stable or gone up.
(ii) In India, the poor illiterate and underprivileged people vote in larger proportion as compared to rich sections.
(iii) Common people in India attach a lot of importance to elections as they feel that through elections they can bring pressure on political parties to adopt policies favouring them.
Q.7. Write about any three challenges which an ordinary citizen would have to face if he wants to contest an election.
Ans. An ordinary citizen would have to face some of the following challenges if he wants to contest the elections :
(i) Candidates with lot of money enjoy a big and unfair advantage over contestants.
(ii) Sometimes candidates with criminal connections push others out of the electoral race and secure a ‘ticket’.
(iii) Some families tend to dominate political parties.
Q.8. Mention any three techniques of election campaign.
(i) Candidates contact their voters
(ii) They address election meetings
(iii) Use newspapers and TV for publicity
Q.9. Discuss the importance of elections in a democracy.
Ans. Elections give people a chance to choose the representatives the government and policies they prefer. The democratic way of selecting representatives can be had by holding elections. The voters can make their choice.
Q.10. Discuss the importance of an election manifesto.
Ans. An election manifesto is a statement by a political party explaining its policies, saying what they will do if they win the election.
Q.11. What is a reserved constitueney? How does it strengthen democracy?
Ans. In a reserved constituency only someone who belongs to the scheduled caste or scheduled tribe community can stand for election. In the Lok Sabha, 79 seats are reserved for SC and 41 for ST Communities. This reservation system makes our democracy a representative democracy.
|1. What is meant by the term 'Electoral Politics'?|
|2. What is the role of the Election Commission in Electoral Politics?|
|3. What is the significance of voter education in Electoral Politics?|
|4. What are the challenges faced by Electoral Politics in India?|
|5. What is the importance of political parties in Electoral Politics?|