Q1: How is food security affected during a calamity?
Ans: During a calamity, the total production of food grains decreases. It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas. Due to the shortage of food, the prices of commodities go up. At higher prices, some people cannot afford to buy the food. If such a calamity happens in a very wide area or is stretched over a long time, it may lead to a situation of starvation.
Q2: 'Food security is essential in India.' Justify the statement. [CBSE 2011]
Ans: Food security is essential in India in the wake of national disasters or calamities like floods, tsunamis, earthquakes and famines. Due to natural and national calamities, the total production of food grains has decreased, which has created a food shortage. As a result of food shortage, the price of food grains goes up. It affects the population of the country, which may suffer from starvation. Massive starvation might take the form of a famine like the Famine of Bengal in 1943. But even today, it is famine-like. Conditions exist in Odisha. Starvation deaths are reported in states like Rajasthan, Jharkhand and some remote areas. All this calls for essential food security in the country to ensure food availability at all times without interruption.
Q3: What is a famine? Who were the most affected by the famine of Bengal?
Ans: A famine is characterized by widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by the forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation. The people who were the most affected by the famine in Bengal were agricultural laborers, fishermen, transport workers and other casual laborers.
Q4: 'The food insecure people are disproportionately large in some regions of the country.' Explain. [HOTS]
Ans: The economically backward states such as Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and some parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the largest number of food insecure people in the country. The tribal and remote areas are highly prone,to poverty whereas regions more prone to natural disasters are vulnerable to poverty.
Q5: Mention the activities of the Food Corporation of India. [CBSE 2014]
Ans: The functions/activities of the Food Corporation of India are:
Q6: Why is buffer stock created by the government? Give any three reasons. [2011 (T-2)]
Buffer stock is created due to the following reasons:
Q7: What are the essentials of a food security system?
Ans: Essentials of the Food Security System are the following:
Q8: How is food security affected during a natural calamity?
Ans: In times of any natural calamity, say a drought, the total production of foodgrains declines. It creates a shortage of food, particularly in the affected areas. Due to the shortage of food, the prices go up in the market. At high prices, poor people may not afford to buy food. If such a calamity occurs in a large area, it may lead to starvation.
Q9: Why is there a need for self-sufficiency in food grains in India?
Ans: The need for self-sufficiency in foodgrains arises from the following:
Q10: The task of attaining self-sufficiency in foodgrains in the future seems to be difficult. Give two reasons in support of this statement.
Ans: The task of attaining self-sufficiency in food grains in future seems to be difficult in India. It is because:
Q11: Mention two objectives of PDS. [Important]
Ans: Two Objectives of PDS.
Q12: Why is the procurement of food grains done in India?
Ans: The government procures food grains at pre-announced prices to provide incentives to farmers for raising the production of crops. The food procured by the government is distributed among the poorer section of society through fair-price shops at subsidized prices.
Q13: Mention two reasons behind excessive buffer stocks of foodgrains.
Ans: Two Reasons for Excessive Buffer Stock:
Q14: State two consequences of the excess reserves of food grains in India.
Ans: Two Consequences of Excessive Buffer Stock:
Q15: Mention two measures undertaken by the government to reduce the stock of food grains.
Ans: Measures to Reduce Buffer Stock.
Q16: What is the Public Distribution System? [CBSE 2010]
Ans: The Food Corporation of India procures food at pre-announced prices. The state governments distribute food grains to the poor through ration shops at subsidized prices fixed by the government. This is called the Public Distribution System. There are about 4.6 lakh ration shops all over the country. Ration shops are also known as fair-price shops.
Q17: How are cooperatives helpful in food security? [CBSE 2010]
Ans: Role of cooperatives in providing food security:
In many parts of India, cooperative societies set up their own cooperatives to supply different items at cheaper rates.
Following are the examples:
Q18: Why is food security essential? How is food security affected during a disaster? [CBSE 2010]
Need for food security: The poorest section of the society might be food-insecure most of the time, while persons above poverty lines might also be food insecure when the country faces a national disaster. Due to natural calamity, say drought, total production of foodgrain decreases. It creates a shortage of food in affected areas. Due to shortage of food, the prices go up. At higher prices, some people cannot buy food. So food security is essential.
Q19: Why has Public Distribution System been criticised? Explain any three reasons. [CBSE 2010]
Q20: What is the difference between chronic and seasonal hunger? Write any two. [CBSE 2010]
Q21: Which people are more prone to food insecurity? Explain. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans: The people worst affected by food insecurity in India are landless laborers, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services and destitute, including beggars. In the urban areas, the food insecure people are those whose working members are generally employed in ill-paid occupations and the casual labor market. These workers are largely engaged in seasonal activities and are paid very low wages that just ensure bare survival.
Q22: Describe briefly the measures adopted to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains since Independence. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans: After Independence, Indian policymakers adopted all measures to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains. India adopted a new strategy in agriculture, which resulted in the Green Revolution, especially in the production of wheat and rice.
Q23: What steps have been taken by the Government of India to provide food security to the poor? Explain any three. [2011 (T-2)]
To provide food security to the poor, the following steps have been taken by the Government of India:
Q24: Describe Public Distribution System (PDS) is the most important step taken by the Government of India towards ensuring food security. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans: In the beginning, the coverage of PDS was universal, with no discrimination between poor and non-poor. Then, later on, the policy was made more targeted.
Important Features of PDS:
Q25: What is buffer stock? Why is it created by the government? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans: Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice, procured by the government through the Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. Buffer stock is created to distribute food grains in deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at prices lower than the market price. It is also used in times of adverse weather conditions.
|1. What is food security in India?|
|2. What are the major factors contributing to food security in India?|
|3. How does the government of India ensure food security in the country?|
|4. What are the challenges to achieving food security in India?|
|5. How does food security impact the overall development of India?|