Class 9  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 9  >  Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India

Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India - Social Studies (SST) Class 9

Q1: How is food security affected during a calamity?

Ans: During a calamity, the total production of food grains decreases. It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas. Due to the shortage of food, the prices of commodities go up. At higher prices, some people cannot afford to buy the food. If such a calamity happens in a very wide area or is stretched over a long time, it may lead to a situation of starvation.

Q2: 'Food security is essential in India.' Justify the statement. [CBSE 2011]

Ans: Food security is essential in India in the wake of national disasters or calamities like floods, tsunamis, earthquakes and famines. Due to natural and national calamities, the total production of food grains has decreased, which has created a food shortage. As a result of food shortage, the price of food grains goes up. It affects the population of the country, which may suffer from starvation. Massive starvation might take the form of a famine like the Famine of Bengal in 1943. But even today, it is famine-like. Conditions exist in Odisha. Starvation deaths are reported in states like Rajasthan, Jharkhand and some remote areas. All this calls for essential food security in the country to ensure food availability at all times without interruption.

Q3: What is a famine? Who were the most affected by the famine of Bengal?

Ans: A famine is characterized by widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by the forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation. The people who were the most affected by the famine in Bengal were agricultural laborers, fishermen, transport workers and other casual laborers.

Q4: 'The food insecure people are disproportionately large in some regions of the country.' Explain. [HOTS]

Ans: The economically backward states such as Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and some parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the largest number of food insecure people in the country. The tribal and remote areas are highly prone,to poverty whereas regions more prone to natural disasters are vulnerable to poverty.

Q5: Mention the activities of the Food Corporation of India. [CBSE 2014]

Ans: The functions/activities of the Food Corporation of India are:

  1. It safeguards the interests of the farmers by providing them with remunerative prices for their foodgrain.
  2. It maintains an adequate level of food grains to ensure stocks are available in any mishappening or calamity.
  3. It allows the government to intervene in the food grains market for price stabilization.

Q6:  Why is buffer stock created by the government? Give any three reasons. [2011 (T-2)]


Buffer stock is created due to the following reasons:

  • To distribute food grains in deficit areas.
  • To distribute food grains among the poorer strata of society at prices lower than market price.
  • To resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during periods of calamity.

Q7: What are the essentials of a food security system?

Ans: Essentials of the Food Security System are the following:

  • Increasing domestic production of food to meet its growing demand.
  • Food should be available in adequate quantity as well as to meet nutritional requirements.
  • Food should be available at reasonable prices.
  • A buffer stock of food should be maintained. Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India | Social Studies (SST) Class 9

Q8: How is food security affected during a natural calamity?

Ans: In times of any natural calamity, say a drought, the total production of foodgrains declines. It creates a shortage of food, particularly in the affected areas. Due to the shortage of food, the prices go up in the market. At high prices, poor people may not afford to buy food. If such a calamity occurs in a large area, it may lead to starvation.

Q9: Why is there a need for self-sufficiency in food grains in India?

Ans: The need for self-sufficiency in foodgrains arises from the following:

  • to feed the growing population
  • to fight against any natural calamity
  • to reduce import of foodgrains
  • to control prices of foodgrains

Q10: The task of attaining self-sufficiency in foodgrains in the future seems to be difficult. Give two reasons in support of this statement.

Ans: The task of attaining self-sufficiency in food grains in future seems to be difficult in India. It is because:

  • There has been a gradual shift from the cultivation of food crops to the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oilseeds, and crops that act as industrial raw materials.
  • More and more land is being used for the construction of factories, residential buildings, etc.

Q11: Mention two objectives of PDS. [Important]

Ans: Two Objectives of PDS.

  • To provide essential goods at subsidized prices to the consumers.
  • To control prices of essential commodities.

Q12: Why is the procurement of food grains done in India?

Ans: The government procures food grains at pre-announced prices to provide incentives to farmers for raising the production of crops. The food procured by the government is distributed among the poorer section of society through fair-price shops at subsidized prices.

Q13: Mention two reasons behind excessive buffer stocks of foodgrains.

Ans: Two Reasons for Excessive Buffer Stock:

  • There has been an increase in the minimum support price.
  • The offtake of food grains under PDS has been declining.

Q14: State two consequences of the excess reserves of food grains in India.

Ans: Two Consequences of Excessive Buffer Stock:

  • It has raised economic costs i.e. cost incurred for procuring, storing and distributing food grains.
  • It has adversely affected the food grain prices.

Q15: Mention two measures undertaken by the government to reduce the stock of food grains.

Ans: Measures to Reduce Buffer Stock.

  • Open sale at prices much below the economic cost.
  • Increase in BPL allocation from 28 kg to 35 kg per month per family.

Q16: What is the Public Distribution System? [CBSE 2010]

Ans: The Food Corporation of India procures food at pre-announced prices. The state governments distribute food grains to the poor through ration shops at subsidized prices fixed by the government. This is called the Public Distribution System. There are about 4.6 lakh ration shops all over the country. Ration shops are also known as fair-price shops.

Q17: How are cooperatives helpful in food security? [CBSE 2010]

Ans: Role of cooperatives in providing food security:
In many parts of India, cooperative societies set up their own cooperatives to supply different items at cheaper rates. 

Following are the examples:

  • In Tamil Nadu, 94% of ration shops are run by cooperatives.
  • In Delhi, Mother Dairy is supplying milk and milk products like butter, ghee etc. to the people at much-subsidised rates.
  • In Gujarat, Amul is doing the same job of supplying milk and milk products to people at much cheaper rates. It is being run by cooperatives. It has brought the 'White Revolution' to India.

Q18: Why is food security essential? How is food security affected during a disaster?  [CBSE 2010]


Need for food security: The poorest section of the society might be food-insecure most of the time, while persons above poverty lines might also be food insecure when the country faces a national disaster. Due to natural calamity, say drought, total production of foodgrain decreases. It creates a shortage of food in affected areas. Due to shortage of food, the prices go up. At higher prices, some people cannot buy food. So food security is essential.

Q19: Why has Public Distribution System been criticised? Explain any three reasons.  [CBSE 2010]


  • Market ineffectiveness of PDS: Average consumption of PDS grain at all India level is only 1 kg per person per month. Average consumption figure in the states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh is only 300 gms, while in states like Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu this figure is 3-4 kg per person per month. As a result, the poor has to depend on markets rather than ration shops.
  • With the introduction of three types of cards and three different prices for the same articles to the different people, the whole system of Public Distribution System has become much complicated.
  • PDS dealers malpractices: The ration shop dealers resort to malpractices. They divert the grains to the open market to get a better margin.

Q20: What is the difference between chronic and seasonal hunger? Write any two.   [CBSE 2010]


  • Chronic Hunger: When diet is inadequate in terms of quantity or quality, it is called chronic hunger. Usually, poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their low income and as a result their inability to buy food even for their survival. This type of hunger is more or less of a permanent nature and presents throughout the year.
  • Seasonal Hunger: Seasonal hunger persists only during a particular period of the season. It is linked with the cycles of food growing and harvesting. In rural areas, seasonal hunger is prevalent because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities. The gap between the sowing season and the reaping season is marked by seasonal hunger.

Q21: Which people are more prone to food insecurity? Explain. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans: The people worst affected by food insecurity in India are landless laborers, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services and destitute, including beggars. In the urban areas, the food insecure people are those whose working members are generally employed in ill-paid occupations and the casual labor market. These workers are largely engaged in seasonal activities and are paid very low wages that just ensure bare survival.

Q22: Describe briefly the measures adopted to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains since Independence. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans: After Independence, Indian policymakers adopted all measures to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains. India adopted a new strategy in agriculture, which resulted in the Green Revolution, especially in the production of wheat and rice.

Q23: What steps have been taken by the Government of India to provide food security to the poor? Explain any three. [2011 (T-2)]


To provide food security to the poor, the following steps have been taken by the Government of India:

  • PDS: The Public Distribution System (PDS) was established for the distribution of food grains among the poor.
  • ICDS: Integrated Child Development Services was launched in 1975 to ensure nutrition among children of the backward areas.
  • FFW: ‘Food for work’ was introduced in 1977-78 to provide employment opportunities for the poor to ensure food security for them.

Q24: Describe Public Distribution System (PDS) is the most important step taken by the Government of India towards ensuring food security. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans: In the beginning, the coverage of PDS was universal, with no discrimination between poor and non-poor. Then, later on, the policy was made more targeted.
Important Features of PDS:

  • Name of Year of Coverage target Full name scheme introduction group
  • PDS up to 1992 Universal Public Distribution System
  • RPDS 1992 Backward Blocks Revamped Public Distribution System
  • TDPS 1997 Poor and non-poor Targeted Public Distribution System
  • AAY 2000 Poorest of the Poor Antyodaya Anna Yojana
  • APS 2000 Indigent Senior Citizen Annapurna Scheme

Q25: What is buffer stock? Why is it created by the government? [2011 (T-2)]

Ans: Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice, procured by the government through the Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. Buffer stock is created to distribute food grains in deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at prices lower than the market price. It is also used in times of adverse weather conditions.

The document Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India | Social Studies (SST) Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9
51 videos|427 docs|89 tests

FAQs on Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India - Social Studies (SST) Class 9

1. What is food security in India?
Ans. Food security in India refers to the availability, access, and affordability of food for all individuals in the country. It ensures that every person has sufficient nutritious food to lead a healthy life.
2. What are the major factors contributing to food security in India?
Ans. The major factors contributing to food security in India include agricultural production, irrigation facilities, distribution channels, government policies, poverty alleviation programs, and nutritional interventions.
3. How does the government of India ensure food security in the country?
Ans. The government of India ensures food security through various measures such as the Public Distribution System (PDS), Minimum Support Price (MSP) for farmers, National Food Security Act (NFSA), Mid-Day Meal Scheme, and various poverty alleviation programs.
4. What are the challenges to achieving food security in India?
Ans. Some of the challenges to achieving food security in India include population growth, climate change, water scarcity, lack of agricultural infrastructure, post-harvest losses, income inequality, and inadequate implementation of government schemes.
5. How does food security impact the overall development of India?
Ans. Food security plays a crucial role in the overall development of India as it ensures the physical well-being and productivity of the population. Access to sufficient and nutritious food helps in reducing malnutrition, improving health outcomes, enhancing educational attainment, and promoting economic growth.
51 videos|427 docs|89 tests
Download as PDF
Explore Courses for Class 9 exam
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Download free EduRev App
Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!
Related Searches

Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India | Social Studies (SST) Class 9


Objective type Questions




practice quizzes


Extra Questions


past year papers


study material


video lectures


shortcuts and tricks






Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India | Social Studies (SST) Class 9


Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India | Social Studies (SST) Class 9


Viva Questions


Previous Year Questions with Solutions


Semester Notes






Sample Paper


Important questions


mock tests for examination