Previous Year Questions - Pastoralists in the modern world Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Class 9: Previous Year Questions - Pastoralists in the modern world Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

The document Previous Year Questions - Pastoralists in the modern world Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

Q.1. Describe the life of pastoralists inhabiting the mountains of India. 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. The Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir, the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh, the Gujjar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaon, the Bhotiyas, the Sherpas and Kinnauris move annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds governed by the cycle of seasonal movements. They adjust their movements to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures in different places. When pastures are exhausted or unstable in one place they move their herds to new areas.


Q.2. Describe the life of Dhangars of Maharashtra. 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. The Dhangar shepherds stay in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. By October, they harvest their bajra and move west to Konkan. The Dhangar flocks manure the fields and feed on stubble. The Konkani peasants give them rice which they take to the plateau as grain is scarce there. With the onset of monsoon they leave Konkan and return to the dry plateau.


Q.3. How did the life of pastoralists change under the colonial rule? 

(CBSE 2010)

OR

Under colonial rule, what were the changes in the life of pastoralists?
 Ans.
Under colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were regulated and they had to pay more revenue. Their agricultural stock declined and their trade and crafts were adversely affected.

 Q.4. Why does a Raika genealogist recount the history of his community?

Ans. I am a 60-year-old Raika herder, I have seen many changes in my life. We as herders have been affected in a variety of ways by changes in the modern world. New laws and new borders have affected the pattern of our lives and our movements. We have seen many restrictions being imposed on our mobility and we as pastoralists find it difficult to move in search of new pastures.
We have adapted to new times. We have changed the path of our annual movement, reduced our cattle numbers, pressed for rights to enter new areas, exerted political pressure on the government for relief, subsidy and other forms of support and demanded a right in management of forests and water resources. We are not relics of the past.

 Q.5. How did the Forest Acts change the life of pastoralists? 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Forest Acts were enacted to protect and preserve forests for timber which was of commercialimportance. These Acts changed the life of pastoralists. They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle. They were issued permits which monitored their entry into and exit from forests. They could not stay in the forests as much as they liked because the permit specified the number of days and hours they could spend in the forests. The permit ruled their lives.

Q.6. When was the Criminal Tribes Act passed? What effect did it have on the forest tribes?

Ans. The colonial government wanted to rule over a settled population. They wanted the rural population to live a settled life in villages. People who moved from place to place were looked upon with suspicion and regarded as criminals. The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in 1871 by which many nomadic communities were declared as criminal tribes. They were supposed to be criminals by nature and birth. Once this Act came into force, these communities were expected to live in notified village settlements. They were not allowed to move out without permits. The village police kept a continuous watch on them.

Q.7. How did the pastoralists cope with the changes in production during the colonial period?

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Under colonial rule the life of the pastoralists changed completely. Their grazing grounds became less, their movements were regulated, the revenues they had to pay increased, their trade and crafts and agricultural produce declined. The pastoralists adjusted with these changes. They reduced the number of cattle in their herds. They discovered new pastures. Some bought land and began to lead a settled life. Some poor peasants borrowed money tosurvive. In due course of time they lost their cattle and sheep and became labourers.

Q.8. Compare the lives of African pastoralists with pastoralists in India during the colonial period.

Ans. There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and Africa.

  1. All uncultivated land was seen as wasteland by colonial powers. It produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. This land was brought under cultivation. In most areas the lands taken over were actually grazing tracts used regularly by pastoralists. So expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and a problem both for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai.
  2. From the 19th century onwards the colonial government started imposing restrictions on the pastoral communities. They were issued permits which allowed them to move out with their stocks and it was difficult to get permits without trouble and harassment. Those found guilty of disobeying rules were punished.

Q.9. ‘In Maasailand, as elsewhere in Africa, not all pastoralists were equally affected by the changes in the colonial period.’ Explain.

Ans. In Maasailand, as elsewhere in Africa, not all pastoralists were equally affected by the changes in the colonial period. In pre-colonal times, Maasai society was divided into elders and warriors. To administer the affairs of Maasai, the British appointed chiefs who were made responsible for the affairs of the people. These chiefs often accumulated wealth with which they could buy animals, goods and land. They lent money to poor neighbours who needed to pay taxes. Many of them began living in cities and became involved in trade. Their wives and children stayed back in villages to look after animals. These chiefs managed to survive the devastation of war and drought. They had both pastoral and non-pastoral income. But the poor pastoralists who depended only on their livestock did not have resources to tide over bad times. In times of war and famines, they lost nearly everything and had to look for work in towns.

Q.10. Why did the British introduce Wasteland Rules? How did they affect the pastoralists? Explain briefly. 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Wasteland rules were introduced because to the colonial officials all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive. It produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. By these rules uncultivated land was taken over and given to select individuals. These individuals were given concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Some of them were made headmen of villages. In most areas, lands taken over were actually grazing tracts, regularly used by pastoralists and the decline of pastures created trouble for the pastoralists.

 Q.11. Describe the social organisation of the Maasai tribe in the pre-colonial times. What changes occurred in Maasai community during colonial period? 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. The Maasai society was divided into two social categories – elders and warriors. The elders formed the ruling group and the warriors were responsible for the protection of the tribe. They were assertive, aggressive and brave but were subject to the authority of the elders. They proved their manliness by conducting raids and participating in wars. Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth.

The Maasai lost about 60% of their pre-colonial lands. Pasture lands were turned into cultivated fields and Maasai were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures. They could not move over vast areas in search of pastures. It affected both their pastoral and trading activities as they were not only deprived of land but of all forms of trade.

Q.12. The pastoral groups had to consider different factors to sustain their life. Explain any three.
 OR
 How did the pastoralists cope with the changes brought by the British through various laws?

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Refer to Answer to Question 7, Short Answer Type Questions.

Q.13. Explain why nomadic tribes needed to move from one place to another? 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another to adjust to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures in different places. This pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures is typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas, including the Bhotias, Sherpas and Kinnauris. When the pastures were exhausted or unusable in one place they move with their flock to new areas. This continuous movement also allowed the pastures to recover, it prevented their overuse

Q.14. What were the views of the British officials about nomadic people? Mention two provisions of the Criminal Tribes Act. 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. British officials were suspicious of nomadic people. They distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who hawked their goods in villages, pastoralists who changed their residence every season. The colonial government wanted to rule over a settled population. Under the Criminal Tribes Act, the nomadic people were considered criminals by nature and birth and many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. These communities were restricted to living in notified village settlements and were notallowed to move without a permit.

Q.15. Explain why the pastoralist need to move from one place to another place? 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another to adjust to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures in different places. This pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures is typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas, including the Bhotias, Sherpas and Kinnauris. When the pastures were exhausted or unusable in one place they move with their flock to new areas. This continuous movement also allowed the pastures to recover, it prevented their overuse


Q.16. Discuss the various restrictions imposed on pastoralist groups in Africa.

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Refer to Answer to Question 6, views of pastoralists Long Answer Type Questions.


Q.17. What are the differences between the pastoralists in the mountains of India and those of the plateaus? 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Refer to Answer to Questions 1 and 2, Short Answer Type Questions.


Q.18. Who are the Gujjar Bakarwals and the Gaddis? What are the similarities between them?
 

(CBSE 2010)

Ans. Refer to Answer to Question 1, Short Answer Type Questions.

The document Previous Year Questions - Pastoralists in the modern world Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

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