Q.1. ‘Agriculture and industry move hand in hand.’ Elucidate.
'Agriculture and industry are complimentary to each other.’ Justify the statement.
Ans. A close relationship exists between agriculture and manufacturing industries. Each of them compliment each other. Each of them serves as market for goods produced by the other and in the process raises demand for each other's goods.
For example, the agro-based industries like textiles, sugar, etc. depend upon agriculture for raw materials. These industries have given a major boost to agriculture by raising their demand and hence, productivity. Manufacturing industries sell the products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, agricultural machineries and tools, etc. to the farmers. Agriculture serves as their market and effects their development. These inputs from industries assists agriculturists in increasing productivity as well as have made the production processes very efficient.
Q.2. Why did the traditional cotton textile industry of India receive a setback during the colonial period?
Ans. The traditional cotton textile industry of India suffered a setback during the colonial period because of competition from mill-made cloth from England. In England cotton textiles were produced in large quantities with the help of powerloom. The surplus was sold in India for profit as India was then a colony of England. Mill-made cloth was cheaper on account of large scale production. On the other hand, our traditional textiles used ancient techniques like hand spinning and handloom weaving. Hence, its production could not compete with mill-made cloth of England.
Q.3. What is the ideal location for sugar mills? Why is this industry ideally suited to the cooperative sector?
Ans. Sugarcane, the raw material used in sugar industry, is bulky, and its sugar content reduces in haulage and time lag between reaping and sugar production. Therefore, the ideal location for sugar mills is in close proximity of sugarcane producing areas. The sugar industry is seasonal in nature and so is ideally suited to the cooperative sector. For entire year the farmers are engaged in producing sugarcane as it is an annual crop. When the crop is reaped, the farmers pool together their resources, set up mills within the sugarcane producing areas and produce sugar. The seasonal nature of the sugar industry is combated by setting up cooperative where farmers share the profits and losses.
Q.4. Which factors are responsible for shifting of sugar mills to southern and western states? Mention two challenges faced by the industry.
Ans. In recent years, there is a tendency among the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states, especially Maharashtra because
(i) the cane produced here has higher sucrose content and yields greater quantity of sugar.
(ii) the cooler climate here ensures longer crushing season as it prevents drying of cane.
(iii) cooperatives are more successful in these states.
Two challenges faced by sugar industry are :
(a) Seasonal nature of the industry.
(b) Old and inefficient methods of production.
Q.5. Why does the north eastern part of the Peninsular Plateau region have the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries?
Ans. The north-eastern part of the Peninsular plateau, the Chhota nagpur plateau region, has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries because of the following reasons :
(a) The region has rich reserves of iron ore of mainly hematite variety. Availability of good quality of iron ore at low cost, provides ideal location for setting up of iron and steel industries.
(b) High grade coking coal is available from the coalfields of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
(c) High quality manganese and limestone is available in proximity.
(d) The surrounding densely populated region supply cheap labour.
(e) The vast growth potential in the home market is an additional advantage.
Local market for the finished goods are provided by other industries using steel as raw material. Good linkage of roads and railways helps in distribution of finished products all over the country.
As iron and steel is a heavy industry, availability of raw materials like iron ore, coking coal and limestone, all of which are bulky, as well as market within easy reach has provided the region ideal location for setting up of iron and steel industries.
Q.6. What are the prime factors in location of aluminium smelting industries? Where are the main aluminium smelting plants of the country located?
Ans. The prime factors in location of aluminium smelting industries are as follows :
(i) Assured source of raw material, bauxite, at minimum cost as it is a bulky material at 4 to 6 tonnes of bauxite are required to manufacture 1 tonne of aluminium.
(ii) 18600 kWh of electricity is required per ton of ore for smelting of aluminium. Hence, regular supply of power is another important factor for location of the industry. Orissa produces about 45 per cent of the India's bauxite. Hence, aluminium smelting plants are located in Orissa. Also, the Hirakud dam provides cheap hydroelectricity for the development of the aluminium industry in the state.
West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu, are other states where aluminium smelting plants are located. INDAL, HINDALCO, MALCO, NALCO and Aluminium Corporation of India are names of the major smelting plants.
Q.7. What is the ideal location for setting up a cement factory? In which state does cement industry have strategically located plants? Write about the present position of cement industry in India.
Ans. Cement industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Heavy costs are involved in the haulage of the raw materials. Hence, economically, the ideal location for cement factories are near the sources of raw materials. Apart from raw materials, coal and electric power is needed to provide energy for working of the plants.
Nearness to rail transportation for supplying the bulky, finished products to the market is another important locational factor.
The cement industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries. Dwarka, Porbandar, Veraval, Sikka and Bhavnagar, where cement factories are set up in this state, lie along the coast. This facilitates the export of cement to the Gulf countries in the west.
Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and some other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides in capacity, process, technology and production. As a result, now there are 128 large cement plants and 332 mini cement plants in India, producing a variety of cement.
Improvement in the quality has provided the cement industry a ready market in East Asia, Middle East and Africa along with the large demand in the domestic market. The industry is doing well in terms of production. Its export is providing the country with substantial foreign exchange.