Q.1. What are the relationships between occupational structure and development?
Ans. The percentage of population that is economically active is an important index of development. The distribution of the working population according to the occupations they are engaged in, is referred to as the occupational structure. It reflects the level of development of a country. In case of developed nations, the occupational structure shows that a high proportion of people are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities. Manufacturing industries and services are the main occupations in which their workforce is engaged. The occupational structure of developing countries show that they tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities, especially agriculture.
Q.2. Discuss the major components of population growth.
What are the factors causing changes in the size of population ? (CBSE 2010)
Ans. There are three main components of population growth – birth rate, death rate and migration. Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
The difference between birth rate and death rate is known as the natural increase of population. Higher birth rate with low death rate results in a higher rate of population growth. When the birth rate is low and death rate is high the result is a low rate of population growth. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). It plays a significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.
Q.3. What is a census? Why is it important for a country to conduct censuses periodically? (CBSE 2010)
Ans. A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. The counting is conducted usually every tenth year. The data collected regarding every aspect of population is then compiled in a book and the whole process is called the census.
The various uses of a census are as follows:
(i) A census provides us information regarding the population of the country.
(ii) It is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data.
(iii) It provides us information regarding population size and distribution. So it helps in planning the development of various regions.
(iv) The comparison of census reports of various decades helps in identifying the trend of population growth. This helps in resource planning.
(v) The level of economic and social development of a country can be identified from the occupational structure and literacy rates provided in the census.
Q.4. What are the reasons for the decrease in death rate in India after independence? (Important)
Ans. The main cause of the rate of growth of Indian population since independence has been the rapid decline in death rate. The main reasons behind this decrease in death rate after independence are as follows.
(i) Better medical facilities and improvement of public health.
(ii) Prevention of infectious diseases with the help of vaccines.
(iii) Controlling of epidemics through health measures and better sanitation.
(iv) Decrease in infant mortality due to family planning and child care programmes.
(v) Extension of hospitals, modern medical practices in treatment of ailments.
(vi) Also, rapid industrialisation and urbanisation since independence have increased the opportunities for livelihood and raised the nutritional level and living standard.
Q.5. What is meant by sex ratio? Give two reasons for low sex ratio in India. (CBSE 2010)
Ans. Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population. The sex ratio in India was 933 in 2001. The sex ratio in India is skewed with the number of males exceeding the number of females. It has always remained unfavourable to females.
The main reasons behind this are:
(i) Unequal social treatment.
(ii) Discrimination against girl child.
(iii) Low literacy rates and lack of social awareness.
(iv) Evil effects of early marriage and large number of death during child birth.
(v) Insufficient attention to and care of girls after birth, during adolescent period and during motherhood.
(vi) Poverty of the people leads to preference for male child as they become bread earners. All of the above result in more death among females and affects the sex ratio.
Q.6. Discuss the reasons for very low population in Arunachal Pradesh.
Ans. Arunachal Pradesh, the extreme north-eastern state of India, has very low population of 10.97 lakhs. The state has a population density of only 13 persons per sq. km. Most of the state is hilly and forested. The climate is harsh with low average temperature. Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions has resulted in sparse population in this state. As a result, the population density of the state is also very low.
Q.7. Discuss why the knowledge about population growth is important?
Ans. The population of a country is its most important resource because they are both the producers and consumers of resources. They are the work force of a country. But at the same time more hands to work also mean more mouths to feed. The development of a country is determined by its population in relation to the available resources. So it is important to know about the population growth of a country. It helps in resource planning. It gives the government an idea about the requirements of health and educational facilities within the country. Economic development of a country is also influenced by population growth. In developed countries population growth is lower, therefore they enjoy a better standard of living. While in developing countries with high population growth, the growing population becomes a burden for the country, affecting physical and social environment.
Q.8. How does migration affect the population of a nation? What are the causes of migration?
Ans. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population of a nation. It is an important determinant of population change. It changes the population size of the nations and the areas influenced by it. Immigration (in-migration) increases the population of a nation while emigration (outmigration) decreases the population of a nation.
Migration also affects population composition in terms of age and sex composition.
Migration takes place due to the following reasons:
(a) For better employment opportunities.
(b) For better living conditions, for educational and health facilities.
(c) On account of natural calamities like floods or droughts or epidemics.
(d) Due to war, partition and political unrest.
Q.9. Describe the reasons behind the high density of population in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
Ans. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state of India and has a population density of 689 persons per sq. km. West Bengal has a high population density of 904 persons per sq. km. The high density of population in these states is on account of the following reasons :
(a) Both the states are located in the Ganga Plains. The Ganga Plains are characterised by flat terrain, fertile soil and abundant supply of water. These conditions are favourable for agriculture and support other means of livelihood as well.
(b) The flat land provides favourable conditions for settlement, for setting up of industries and for improving infrastructure of the region. Work opportunites and better living conditions attract population.
(c) Suitable climate and abundant rainfall.
(d) Location of metro cities like Kolkata in West Benal and big cities like Lucknow, Agra, Kanpur and Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.
Q.10. Distinguish between immigration and emigration. (Important)
Ans. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. When people migrate into a nation from other nations it is known as immigration or in-migration. When people migrate from one nation to other nations it is known as emigration or out-migration. Immigration increases the total population of a nation by adding to the existing population. Emigration decreases the total population of a nation because people move out from the nation. People immigrate to nations having better work opportunities and better living conditions People emigrate from nations in search of better opportunities for survival and livelihood.
Q.11. Why is the health of people a matter of major concern for India? Explain any three reasons. (CBSE 2010)
Ans. Despite considerable achievements, the health situation is a matter of major concern for India:
(i) The per capita calorie consumption is much below the recommended levels.
(ii) Malnntrition affticts a large percentage of our population.
(iii) Safe drinking water and basic sanitation amenities are available to only one-third of the rural population.
Q.12. Give any three reasons for the steep rise in the population of India since 1921. (CBSE 2010)
Ans. After 1921, India's population has been constantly increasing.
(i) Early maniage of men and women
(ii) lack of literacy, particularly among females
(iii) social and religious superstition and rigidity
(i) High brith rate and low death rate
(ii) Lack of proper medical facilities and high rate of infant mortality
(iii)Lack of proper family planning techniques.
Q.13. What is migration? What is the impact of internal migration on the population within the nation? (CBSE 2010)
Ans. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation. In India, most internal migrations have been from rural to urban areas.
Q.14. When was National Population Policy implemented? Give its significant features.
What is (NPP) National Population Policy? Why was NPP initiated by the government?
Mention any three significant features of the National Population Policy, 2000.
Mention any three objectives of National Population Policy (NPP) 2000. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. National Population Policy (NPP) was implemented in the year 2000:
The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting
(i) free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age
(ii) reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births
(iii) achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases, promoting delayed marriage for girls and making family welfare. In addition, the policy make a serious attention on adolescents population welfare.
Q.15. There are three main processes of change of population. Explain how these processes change the size of population. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. There are three main processes of change of population : Birth rates, Death rates and Migration. Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of population growth.
Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. Migration is the movement of population across regions and territories. It may be internal (within the country) or International (between the countries)
If birth rate is high and death rate is low population will increase. Similarly, if birth rate is low and death rate is high there is slow growth of population. If death rate and birth rate is equal there is a stagnant growth of population.
Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population. Internal migration does not change the size of the population. It only influences the distribution of population within a nation.
Q.16. Categorize the population of a nation into three broad categories on the basis of age composition and explain it. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The population of a nation is grouped under three categories:
(i) Children (generally below 15 years). These groups are economically unproductive. They require food, clothing, education and medical care.
(ii) Working Group (15 to 59 years age). They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. These group bears the burden of children and aged group.
(iii) Aged (Above 59 years). This group is by and large unproductive and depends upon the working group.
Q.17. What is meant by Occupational Structure? Explain the Occupational structure of India. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. Occupations are generally classified as primary (agriculture, forestry, fishing, animal husbandry, mining and quarrying), secondary activities which include manufacturing industry, building and construction work etc. and tertiary activities include transport communication, trade and commerce, and services. In India, about 64 percent of the population is engaged only in agriculture. The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13 and 20 per cent respectively. There has been an occupational shift in India in favour of growing industrialisation and urbanisation.
Q.18. What is dependency ratio? Why is dependency ratio higher in India? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The ratio of people of dependent age (below 15 years and 60 years) to people of economically active ages (15–59 years) is called dependency ratio. The dependency ratio is higher in India because a larger number of children (34.4 per cent) and aged population (6.9 per cent) are found dependent upon the working population (58.7%). The economically unproductive population needs food, clothing, education and medicare which has to be provided by the working population.
Q.19. Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981? Give any three reasons. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Since 1981, birth rates in India have started declining gradually resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth. The three reasons are as fallows.
(i) A downward trend of crude birth rate.
(ii) An increase in the mean age at marriage.
(iii) Improvement in the quality of life, particularly education of females in the country.