Q.1. Write a short note on the Golden Quadrilateral and the North-South and East-West Corridors.
Ans. The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi – Kolkata – Chennai – Mumbai – Delhi by six-lane Super Highways. This is known as Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways as it links the four major metro cities. The general road network formed as a result is more or less quadrilateral in shape. It aims to improve linkage between the mega cities. It has a total length of 5846 km.
The North-South Corridor and the East-West Corridor, linking the terminal stations of Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu in the south, Silchar in Assam in the east and Porbandar in Gujarat in the west, are part of the Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway Project. The North-South and East-West Corridors have a length of 7142 km. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
The major objective of these Super Highways is to reduce the time and distance between the big cities of India by providing opportunity for free movement of traffic, thus increasing connectivity between them.
Q.2. Which are the three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country? What is the significance of developing pipeline transportation in India?
Ans. The three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country are :
(a) From oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
(b) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali in Gujarat, Chakshu and other places.
(c) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh. via Bijapur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
The pipelines have played a significant role in the development of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat atfar inland locations, away from producing areas to cater to the demand of the inland markets. The development of gas-based fertiliser plants in agricultural regions away from petroleum-producing areas have also been possible due to pipeline transport.
Q.3. What are the advantages of waterways as a means of transport? Mention the names of three National Waterways in India.
Ans. Waterways are the cheapest mode of transport. Neither construction cost, nor maintenance cost is required for the waterways as they use the rivers, lakes, seas and oceans as highways. They are suited for the transport of bulky and heavy raw materials. Waterways is a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transportation. The boats and steamers, even if mechanised, consume much lesser fuel and do not pollute the surrounding.
The following waterways have been declared as the National Waterways by the Government :
(a) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km) – National Waterway No. 1.
(b) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km) – National Waterway No. 2.
(c) The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapuram – Komman, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals - 205 km) – National Waterway No. 3.
Q.4. Which two modes of transport are widely used within the north-eastern states of India? Why?
Ans. Inland Waterway and Airways are the two modes of transport which are widely used in the northeastern states of India. The northeastern part of the country is marked with the presence of hilly terrain, dissected relief, dense forests, large number of rivers, heavy rainfall as well as international frontiers. As a result, roadways and railways cannot develop properly and are lacking in this region.
The Brahmaputra and its tributaries are therefore used by the local people for inland navigation as it is cheap and convenient to use. The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri in Assam has been declared as National Waterways No. 2 by the Government, on account of its importance.
Air travel is another preferred mode of travel in these areas as airways can cross over geographical obstacles of the region with great ease. During heavy rainfall and frequent floods, airways become the only mode of transport. Air transport is also subsidised in this northeastern states and special provisions are made to extend the services to the common people.
Q.5. Which port serves the rich hinterland of Ganga-Brahamputra basin? Write a short note on this port. What is the significance of the ports in India’s economy?
Ans. The Kolkata port serves the large and rich hinterland of the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin covering the states of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. Tea, jute and cotton textiles, coal, lac, hides, engineering goods are some items of export from this region via Kolkata port.
The Kolkata port is an inland riverine port situated on the left bank of the River Hooghly in West Bengal. It is located inland at a distance of 128 km from the Bay of Bengal. It is a tidal port. As a result, the port faces the problem of siltation and requires constant dredging. It is the most important port in the eastern region. Ports hold a special position in India’s international trade. India’s trade with foreign countries is carried on mainly through the ocean routes from the ports located along the coast. 95 percent of the country’s trade volume (68 percent in terms of value) is moved by the sea via the ports. Hence, ports have great significance in the economy of India.
Q.6. What is the significance of airways as a mode of transport? Mention two merits and one demerit of airways.
Ans. Airways are the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport in recent times. They can easily cross over geographical boundaries and vast stretches of seas and oceans. They can negotiate over difficult terrain like high mountains, dissected terrain, dreary desert, dense forests with great ease, within short period of time. Fast international travel between different countries of the world have been possible because of the development of airways. Airways play a vital role during natural and man-made calamities like floods, famines, earthquake, epidemics and war. They help in rescue operations and providing relief to the people in affected areas within short time.
Two merits of airways are :
(a) It is the fastest mode of transportation. Thousands of kilometres are covered within a few hours.
(b) It is the most comfortable mode of transportation.
A demerit of airways is : It is the costliest mode of transportation and is out of the reach of common people.