Q.1. Which factors help economic growth in the country?
(i) Economic growth depends on the size of the population of a country. We can see that in our country economic growth cannot cope with the problem of a bursting population of more than a billion people.
(ii) It also depends on the global situation and cooperation from other countries. All developing countries need help of the rich and developed nations to grow.
(iii) The policies of the government also affect economic growth of country.
Q.2. How have democracies fallen short of people’s expectations?
Ans. Democracies have failed to hold elections which give a fair chance to everyone. They have failed in transparency, i.e. sharing information with citizens. They are also blamed for not holding public debate. And finally, corruption is the biggest charge against democratic governments.
Q.3. What is a must for a successful democratic government?
Ans. In a democracy, there must be a government which is accountable to the citizens, responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens only then it can be effective and efficient.
Q.4. What do you understand by the term ‘majority’ in a democracy?
Ans. Democracy does not rule simply by majority opinion. ‘Majority’ does not mean a community in terms of religion, race or linguistic group. Rule by majority means that in case of every decision, or in case of every election, different people and groups can form a majority.
Q.5. What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities? [2011 (T-2)]
(i) The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general views.
(ii) It is necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion, race, linguistic group, etc. Different persons or groups should be allowed to form a government as a result of an election conducted.
Q.6. Some people think that democracy produces less efficient and effective government. Do you agree with their views? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. It is true that some delay is bound to take place in democracy as it is based on deliberation and negotiation. It is also true that non-democratic rulers can be very quick and efficient in decision-making and implementation. But they may take decisions that are not acceptable to the people but are forced on them. On the other hand, because democratic governments follow procedures, its decisions may be more acceptable to the people and more effective. So I do not agree with the view that democracy is a less effective and more inefficient form of government.
Q.7. Examine with the help of three examples how the dignity and freedom of citizens are best guaranteed in a democracy. [2011 (T-2)]
(i) Dignity of women. Long struggles by women have created some sensitivity today that respect to and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society.
(ii) Caste inequalities. Democracy in India have strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.
(iii)Public expression of dissatisfaction. A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic project : it transforms people from the status of a ‘subject’ to that of a ‘citizen’. Public expression shows that people are aware and have the ability to look critically at the powerholders.