Q.1. What do you understand by the term ‘foundational challenges’?
Ans. Many countries even now are not democratic. They have to make a transition from other forms of governments to democracy and then instituting democratic governments. Such countries face the foundational challenge.
Q.2. Briefly explain how the challenge of deepening of democracy can be met?
Ans. It means strengthening the existing institutions of democracy and practices of democracy. As different people, different countries have different people, different countries have different expectations from democracy means that a democracy has to encourage people’s participation and control on democratic institutions. It has to curb and cut down the role of money power, the influence of the rich on making governmental decisions.
Q.3. What are the forms of challenges faced by different countries in respect to democracy?
(i) Countries which are not yet democratic face a foundational challenge—making a transition to democracy and establishing democratic governments.
(ii) Many countries face the challenge of expansion. This means applying principles of democracy to all the state, local and regional levels. It means including all social and economic groups including women empowerment.
(iii) All the democracies face the challenge of deepening of democracy. They have to improve and strengthen all institutions of democracy and curb all anti-democratic activities.
Q.4. Why do most people want to reform politicians? Do you agree with their views?
Ans. General public tends to blame politicians for all the ills of our country. People think they are responsible for the corruption, defection, casteism, communal violence, criminality etc. But it is wrong to do so, because all politicians are not bad, there are both good, honest politicians as well as bad, corrupt ones. It is for the citizens to be more alert and make the right choice at the time of elections. People and politicians together can meet the various challenges like casteism and community, not any strict laws.
Q.5. Can we draw a list of political reforms applicable to all democracies? Why/Why not?
Ans. Since all the countries do not have the same challenges, it is understood that everyone cannot follow the same recipe of political reforms. So, we cannot draw a list of political reforms applicable to all the democracies.
Q.6. What is the lacuna in legal means of political reform?
Ans. Any legal change must carefully look at what result it will have on politics. Sometimes, the results may be counter-productive. Generally, laws that seek to ban something are not very successful in politics. The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms.
Q.7. Examine the three challenges of democracy. [CBSE Sample Paper]
(i) Foundational challege : It refers to making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government.
(ii) Challenge of Expansion : This involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions.
(iii)Deepening of Democracy : This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy.