Q1. Give the characteristics of Monera.
Ans. (a) Organisms are unicellular, do not have a defined nucleus.
(b) Organisms may have cell wall or may not have cell wall.
(c) Mode of nutrition is either autotrophic or heterotrophic.
Q2. Give the characteristics of Protista.
Ans. (a) Organsims are unicellular and eukaryotic.
(b) Use appendages for locomotion like cilia, flagella, etc.
(c) Nutrition is either autotrophic or heterotrophic.
(d) E.g., algae, protozoa.
Q3. What are hermaphrodites? Give two examples.
Ans. When an organism has both the sexes, i.e., it can produce both sperms and eggs are called hermaphrodites. Example: Sponges, earthworms.
Q4. Give the difference between thallophyta and bryophyta.
|Body is thallus like not differentiated into root, stem. Example: Spirogyra.||Plant body is differentiated into stem and leaf like structures. Example: Moss.|
Q5. Give the difference between monocots and dicots.
|1. Seeds with one cotyledon.||Seeds with two cotyledons.|
|2. Leaves have parallel venation.||Leaves have reticulate venation.|
|3. Root system—fibrous.||Root system—tap root.|
Q6. Give the difference between two types of symmetry that animals show.
Ans. Symmetry—Bilateral and Radial
|Bilateral Symmetry||Radial Symmetry|
|Any organism that has same design on left and right halves of the body. Example: Earthworm, spider, cockroach.||on left and right halves of the body. Example: Earthworm, spider, cockroach. |
Any organisms with a body design such that it can be divided into two equal halves from any radius. Example: Starfish, sea urchin.
Q7. Differentiate between vertebrates and invertebrates.
|1. Notochord is present.||Notochord is absent.|
|2. True internal skeleton present.||No true internal skeleton present.|
Q8. Name the phylum of the following animals:
Ans. (a) Tapeworm – Platyhelminthes
(b) Starfish – Echinodermata
(c) Jellyfish – Coelenterata
(d) Octopus – Mollusca
Q9. Identify the phylum for the following characteristics given below:
(a) Organisms with joint appendages.
(b) Organisms are generally flat worms.
(c) Body is segmented.
(d) Skin of organisms is full of spikes.
Ans. (a) Arthropoda
Q10. State the features of all chordates.
Ans. All chrodates possess the following features:
(i) Have a notochord
(ii) Have a dorsal nerve chord
(iii) Are triploblastic
(iv) Have paired gill pouches
Q11. Give general characteristics of Porifera.
Ans. (a) Animals with pores all over the body.
(b) Body is not well differentiated.
(c) Non-motile animals, remain attached to solid support.
(d) Body is covered with hard outer skeleton. Example, sponges.
Q12. How are pores or holes all over the body of Porifera important?
Ans. The pores or holes present all over the body of the organisms lead to a canal system that helps in circulating water throughout the body to bring in food and oxygen.
Q13. Give general characteristics of ‘Platyhelminthes’?
Ans. (a) These are flat worms.
(b) Most of them are parasites.
(c) Animals are triploblastic
(d) No true internal body cavity.
E.g., Tapeworm, Planaria, Liver fluke.
Q14. Give specific characteristics of Coelenterata.
Ans. (a) Water living animals.
(b) Body is made of two layers of cells.
(c) Some of them live in colonies (corals), while others have solitary life-span (Hydra).
(d) Body cavity present.
Q15. Give the characteristics of Arthropoda with 2 examples.
Ans. (a) Arthropoda means ‘jointed legs’.
(b) Animals are bilaterally symmetrical and segmented.
(c) It has an open circulatory system.
(d) This is the largest group of animals.
Example: Spider, scorpions, crabs, houseflies.
Q16. Give the characteristic features of Echinodermata.
Ans. (a) Spikes present on skin.
(b) Free living, marine animals.
(c) Triploblastic and have a coelomic cavity.
(d) Have a peculiar water-driven tube system used for moving around.
(e) Have hard calcium carbonate structure that is used as a skeleton.
Example, Starfish, sea urchin.
Q17. Give the characteristics of mammals.
Ans. (a) Mammals are warm-blooded animals.
(b) Four-chambered heart.
(c) Mammary glands for production of milk to nourish their young ones.
(d) Skin has hairs, sweat glands and oil glands.
(e) Most of them produce their young ones (viviparous).
Q18. What are the conventions followed for writing the scientific names?
Ans. The conventions followed while writing the scientific names are:
1. The name of the genus begins with a capital letter.
2. The name of the species begins with a small letter.
3. When printed, the scientific name is given in italics.
4. When written by hand, the genus name and the species name have to be underlined separately.
Q19. Differentiate between algae and fungi.
|1. Contain chlorophyll (green in colour).||1. Do not contain chlorophyll (non-green)|
|2. Autotrophic nutrition.||2. Heterotrophic nutrition.|
|3. Food is stored in the form of starch.||3. Food is stored in the form of glycogen.|
Q20. Name the phylum of the following organisms. whose exclusive characteristics is given below:
(a) Hollow bones
(b) Jointed appendages
(c) Flat worm
(d) Round worms, parasitic
(e) Soft body, muscular marine animal
(f) Radially symmetrical, spiny skin.
Ans. (a) Phylum chordata, subphylum—vertebrata, class—Aves
(d) Phylum—Aschelminthes or Nematoda
Q21. Give the characteristics of amphibians.
Ans. Amphibians are vertebrates that lives on land and in water.
(a) They are cold-blooded.
(b) Heart is three-chambered.
(c) Fertilization is external.
(d) Respiration through lungs on land and through moist skin when in water.
Example, Frog, Toads
Q22. Give the characteristics of Aves.
Ans. (a) Aves/birds can fly.
(b) Streamlined body.
(c) Hollow and light bones.
(d) Forelimbs are modified into wings.
(e) Warm-blooded animals, heart with four chambers.
(f) Egg laying animals.
(g) Beak is present and teeth are absent.
Q23. Why do most of the amphibians lay their eggs in water and reptiles lay their eggs on land?
Ans. Amphibians lay their eggs in water because the tadpoles or young ones that hatch out of egg has gills at initial stages, that allows them to breathe in water.
In case of reptiles the young ones that hatch out does not have gills and the hatching of eggs requires warmth that is given by the mother reptile.
Q24. Give the hierarchy of 5 kingdom classification of living world.
Q25. Give one example of each
(a) Asymmetry,bilateral and radial symmetry.
(b) Acoelomate,pseudocoelomate and haemocoelomate.
Ans. (a) In asymmetrical the body cannot be divided into two equal halves and in radial symmetry the body can be divided into two halves.
(b) Acoelomate: Body has no coelom eg. Sponges and flat worms,
Pseudocoelomate: The animals in this group have false cavity eg. nematodes.
Haemocoelomate: The body cavity is filled with blood eg. arthropods
Q26. What is the other name given to flowering plants? Classify them on the basis of number of cotyledons.
Ans. Angiosperms are flowering plants. They are classified as monocot and dicot. Monocot are the ones that bear seeds with single cotyledon and dicots are those which bear seeds with two cotyledons.
Q27. What is meant by symbiotic relationship? Give example.
Ans. Symbiotic relationship is a give and take relationship in which both the organisms associated are benefitted with each other. Eg. Lichen in which algae and fungi are associated.
Q28. Distinguish between (a) Monera and Protista on the basis of nucleus.
(b) Fungi and plantae on the basis of mode of nutrition.
(c) Gymnosperm and angiosperm on the basis of seeds.
Ans. (a) Monera is prokaryotic, does not have well defined nucleus and Protista is eukaryotic with well-defined nucleus.
(b) Fungi are saprophytes, Plantae are autotrophs.
(c) Gymnosperms have naked seeds and the angiosperms have seeds enclosed in the fruit.
Q29. A group in classification includes many kind of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Some of them use appendages, such as hair like cilia, flagella for moving around. Answer the following questions based on the information given above:
(a) Identify the kingdom to which these organism belongs.
(b) What is the mode of nutrition for these organisms?
(c) Write two examples of organisms belonging to this group.
Ans. (a) The kingdom is Protista.
(b) They may show autotrophic or heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
(c) Amoeba, paramecium.
Q30. Identify the class of animals having the following characteristic features.
(a) The warm blooded animals that lay eggs and have four chambered heart and a covering of feathers.
(b) Give an example of an animal belonging to each of these classes.
Ans. (a) Class: Aves.
(b) Examples are ostrich, hen, eagle.
Q31. Compare the life-cycle of gymnosperms and angiosperm.
Ans. Angiosperms plants bear flower and fruits, they show double fertilization.
Gymnosperms don’t bear flowers and fruits- they have cones. They don’t show double fertilization.
Q32. State different parts of a seed and give function of each?
Ans. Embryo: Grows into new plant.
Cotyledons: Grow into stem. It is also a food source.
Radical: Grows into roots.
Endosperm: Food storage.
Q33. Explain the fertilization process in angiosperms.
Ans. Double fertilization takes place in which a male egg fuses with a female egg to form zygote(2n) which then develops into embryo. The other male egg fuses with two cells (nuclei) present at the center of embryo sac (ovule) to form endospore (3n) that acts as food reserve.
Q34. Name the different Groups of Mammals which includes some variation in their lifestyle. With one example.
Ans. (i) Egg-laying mammals : Platypus
(ii) Pouched mammals : Kangaroo
(iii) Grass eating mammal: elephant
(iv) Flesh-eating mammals : Tiger
(v) Aquatic mammals : Dolphin
(vi) Flying mammals: Bat