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Q1. Give four differences between bone and cartilage.
|1. Hard and non-flexible||1. Flexible not very hard|
|2. Porous||2. Non-porous|
|3. Blood vessels present||3. Blood vessels absent|
|4. Matrix made up of protein and mineral salts.||4. Matrix made up of proteins.|
Q2. Give the functions of bone.
Ans. The functions of bone are:
(i) It provides shape to the body.
(ii) It provides skeletal support to the body.
(iii) It anchors the muscles.
(iv) It protects the vital body organs like brain, lungs, etc.
Q3. Give the functions of cartilage.
Ans. (i) It provides support and flexibility to the body parts.
(ii) It smoothens surface at joints.
Q4. Fill in the blanks:
(i) Water and minerals are conducted by .................
(ii) In higher plants food is conducted by .................
(iii) Blood is a ................................................. tissue.
(iv) Bone consists of .......................................... cells.
(v) Cartilage consists of .......................................... cells.
(vi) Fibres are absent in ................. type of connective tissue.
Ans. (i) Xylem
Q5. What are the functions of areolar tissue?
Ans. Functions are:
(i) It helps in repair of tissues after an injury.
(ii) It also helps in combating foreign toxins.
(iii) It fixes skin to underlying muscles.
Q6. Give difference between xylem and phloem.
|1. It consists of mainly dead elements.||1. It consists of mainly living elements.|
|2. It conducts water and minerals.||2. It conducts food.|
|3. It provides mechanical strength to the plant.||3. It does not provide mechanical strength to the plant.|
Q7. What are fibres?
Ans. Fibres consist of very long, narrow, flexible and thick cells. Example, jute and cotton fibre.
Q8. Name the tissues for the following:
(a) Stores fat in animal body.
(b) Divides and re-divides to grow in plants.
(c) Tissue that joins bone to bone.
(d) Covers the external surface of animal body.
Ans. (a) Adipose tissue
(b) Meristematic tissue
(d) Epithelial tissue.
Q9. What are stomata?
Ans. Stomata are small pores present on the surface of a leaf which helps in the exchange of gases during photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration.
Q10. Why does epidermal tissue have no intercellular space?
Ans. The epidermal (layer) tissue forms a protective outer covering and protects the internal parts of the plant. It aids in the protection against loss of water, mechanical injury and invasion by parasitic fungi.
For this protective role to play the continuation of cells is necessary, hence it does not have intercellular space.
Q11. Name and give the function of each cell of xylem.
Ans. Xylem consists of tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.
Tracheids and vessels—Allows the transport of water and minerals.
Xylem parenchyma—Stores food and helps in the sideways conduction of water.
Xylem fibres—Are supportive in function.
Q12. What is the function and location of stratified squamous epithelium?
Ans. Stratified squamous epithelium is present in the skin. The layers of cells are arranged to prevent wear and tear.
Q13. Give difference between ligament and tendon.
|1. Ligament helps in connecting bone to bone.||1. Tendon helps in connecting bone to muscles.|
|2. It is elastic and flexible.||2. It is strong and non-flexible.|
Q14. Give difference between striated muscles and unstriated muscles.
|Striated Muscles||Unstriated Muscles|
|1. They are skeletal muscles.||1. They are smooth muscles.|
|2. They show alternate light and dark bands.||2. These muscles do not show such bands.|
|3. Voluntary muscles.||3. Involuntary muscle.|
|4. Cells are cylindrical and multinucleated.||4. Cells are tapering and uninucleated.|
Q15. State the difference between bone and blood.
|1. It is a hard tissue.||1. It is a liquid tissue.|
|2. It consists of osteocytes.||2. It consists of plasma, RBC, WBC and blood platelets.|
|3. It helps in movement and support of the body.||3. It helps in the transport of substances.|
Q16. Name all different types of tissues present in animal.
Ans. There are four main types of tissues present in animal.
(a) Epithelial tissue present on the outer and inner lining of the body.
(b) Muscular tissue are made up of muscles, help in movement.
(c) Connective tissue connects the different organs in the body.
(d) Nervous tissue consists of nerve cells and are present in the nervous system.
Q17. Why is blood called connective tissue?
Ans. The blood is composed of cells and plasma. Plasma is a fluid and cells like red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are present in it. All these cells are connected due to plasma. It also transports absorbed nutrients, water gases like (O2 and CO2) to the different parts of the body and connects them.
Q18. Name three types of muscle tissues and give function of each.
Ans. Three types of muscle tissues are:
(a) Striated muscle
(b) Smooth muscle
(c) Cardiac muscle
(a) Striated muscle: These muscles show alternate light and dark bands or striations. They are voluntary muscles and present in skeletal tissues, help in movement of body and bones.
(b) Smooth muscle: These are involuntary muscles, control the movement of food in alimentary canal, contraction and relaxation of blood vessels. Present in iris, uterus etc.
(c) Cardiac muscle: These muscles are present in heart which help in the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of heart throughout the life.
Q19. State the difference between simple tissues of plants.
Ans. The simple tissues of plants are:
|1. The cells are living and thin walled.||The cells are living and thick at corners.||The cells are dead and thick walled due to lignin deposition.|
|2. The cells are oval, spherical or polygonal in shape.||The cells are elongated and thickened at corners.||The cells are long and narrow.|
|3. There is large, intercellular space between the cells.||There is very little intercellular space.||There is no intercellular space.|
Q20. With the help of diagram show the difference between striated muscle fibre, smooth muscle fibre and cardiac muscle fibre.
|Striated Muscle||Smooth Muscle||Cardiac Muscle|
|1. The cells are long, cylindrical, unbranched and multinucleated.||The cells are long with pointed ends and uninucleated.||The cells are cylindrical, branched and uninucleated.|
|2. The cells show alternate light and dark bands.||The cells do not have such light and dark bands.||The cells show alternate dark and light bands.|
|3. The muscles are voluntary||The muscles are involuntary.||The muscles are involuntary.|
Q21. Name different types of meristematic tissue and draw diagram to show their location.
Ans. The 3 different types of meristematic tissue are:
(a) Apical meristem—Function: growth in length.
(b) Lateral meristem—Function: growth in thickness.
(c) Intercalary meristem—Function: growth in internodes.
Q22. Explain the structure, function and location of nervous tissue.
Ans. Structure: Nervous tissue consists of cells called nerve cells joined end to end (neurons). A neuron (nerve cell) consists of a cell body with nucleus and cytoplasm. From these cell body a long thin hair-like parts arise called axon and many short branched parts called dendrites.
Location: Nervous tissue are present in brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Function: Nervous tissue receives the stimuli and transmit the stimulus rapidly from one place to another within the body.
The nerve impulse allows us to move our muscles and respond to any stimuli.
Q23. Give the flow chart of plant tissues.
Q24. Name the tissue which allows easy bending in various parts of a plant.
Ans. Collenchyma is a kind of Simple permanent tissues Provides flexibility to parts of plant which bends thereby allowing easy bending in various parts of a plant.
Q25. Which structure protects the plant body against the invasion of parasites?
Ans. The upper layer of plant body, the dermal tissue and a hard cuticle covering protect the plant body from invasion of parasites and other harmful agents.
Q26. Which type of permanent tissue help the aquatic plants to float?
Ans. Aerenchyma is the type of parenchyma tissue that contains air cavities, makes the plant body light, which help the aquatic plants to float.
Q27. Epidermis in desert plants has a thin waxy coating of a chemical substance. Name the chemical.
Ans. Cutin which is a waxy polymer. Its waterproof, controls and limits the water loss in desert plants.
Q28. Name the part of phloem with perforated walls.
Ans. Sieve tubes of Phloem tissues are responsible for conduction of nutrients. Sieve tubes have perforated walls but lack a nucleus. Companion cells, phloem parenchyma and phloem fibers are other parts of phloem.
Q29. What are companion cells and are what are they associated with?
Ans. Companion cells are the specialized parenchyma cells associated with the sieve tube elements of phloem. They help in the development and function of a sieve-tube element. Companion cells move sugars and amino acids in and out of the sieve elements.
Q30. Name different types of white blood corpuscles.
Ans. Neutrophil (polynuclear leucocyte), Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte.
Q31. Identify the location of the following connective tissues.
Ans. (a) Blood: Present all over the body in blood vessels.
(b) Lymph: Present in lymph vessels.
(c) Bone: Present in all over body forming in endo-skeleton.
(d) Cartilage: Trachea, larynx, ear, tip of nose.
(e) Tendons: Connect muscles to bones.
Q32. How are muscles tissues related to nerve cells?
Ans. Muscles do not move on their own. They move only when they receive a nerve impulse. Motor neuron a type of nerve cell are connected to muscles which carry stimulus for muscle movement.