Q. 1. What is citizenship?
Ans. Citizenship is a legal relationship that binds an individual to the state of which he is a member.
Q. 2. State two types of citizenship.
Ans. There are two types of citizenship — natural citizenship and naturalised citizenship.
Q. 3. What is the meaning of term ‘Apartheid’?
Ans. Apartheid means social discrimination.
Q. 4. Who was T.H. Marshall?
Ans. T.H. Marshall was a British socialist.
Q. 5. Which rights are considered most important by T.H. Marshall in his idea of citizenship?
Ans. (1) Civil rights (2) Political rights (3) Social rights.
Q. 6. When was National Policy on Urban Street Vendors was framed?
Ans. National Policy on Urban Street Vendors was framed in January 2004.
Q. 7. Who is a citizen?
Ans. Citizen is that member of population of a State who enjoys all the rights – civil as well as political under the protection of the State in return for the allegiance he owes to the State.
Q. 8. What do you mean by naturalised citizenship?
Ans. Naturalised citizenship is a special device for the acquisition of foreign citizenship. It is a process by which the foreigners acquire citizenship of any other State in which they wish to settle permanently. Naturalised citizenship takes place through many ways.
Q. 9. Describe the meaning and definition of citizenship.
Ans. Citizenship is a legal relationship that binds an individual to the State of which he is a member. Laski offers a more positive conception of citizenship bydefining as “contribution of one’s instructed judgement to public good.” This definition assigns a positive role to the citizen, viz. his duty to contribute his mite towards material and moral advancement of his fellow citizens and that humanity as a whole.According to Gettell, “Citizenship is that condition of individual due to which he can use national and political rights in his ready to fulfil obligation.”According to Boyd, “Citizenship consists in the right ordering of loyalties.”
Q. 10. How citizenship can be acquired?
Mention any four modes of gaining of citizenship.
Ans. Citizenship can be acquired through the following ways:
1. Long Residence: Sometimes aliens can acquire naturalised citizenship on account of their residence for a particular period in that State.
2. Marriage: A marriage affects a change in the citizenship of the wife who follows the citizenship of her husband. Thus, an English woman marrying a German will become a German citizen.
3. Adoption: The adoption of a new child also determines the new citizenship. For instance, if any German couple adopts the child of England, he acquires the citizenship of his adopted parents, i.e., of Germany.
4. Government service: In certain States there is a principle that if any foreigner joins government service in that State then he gets the citizenship of that State.
Q. 11. How is citizenship lost?
Ans. Under the following conditions, citizenship may be lost:
1. Long absence: Long absence from the home country is sufficient under the law of many States to exclude one from the fold of citizens. In France and Germany, citizens who absent themselves from their State for more than ten years may lose their citizenship.
2. Marriage: In many states, women marrying a foreigner lose their citizenship in their own country and acquire the citizenship of her husband’s country.
3. Government service in other state: Some states deprive their citizens of the citizenship if they accept government service in some other State.
4. Crime: Citizenship may be lost by a man who is convicted of a heinous crime.
Q. 12. What are the qualities of a good citien?
Ans. A person becomes a good citizen if he possesses the following qualities:
1. Education: A good citizen in the modern society should be well educated. Education makes him understand the problems of the State.
2. Social spirit: A good citizen must possess social spirit. He should subordinate his self interest to the interest of the community.
3. Dutifulness: A citizen should discharge his duties honestly and diligently. He should always be ready to support others in the discharge of their duties.
4. Good Character: A good character is very important for good citizenship. A country can not progress if its citizens are corrupt.