Q. 1. From which language the word ‘Nation’ is derived?
Ans. Latin Language.
Q. 2. Write two elements which promote Nationalism.
Ans. 1. Common motherland.
2. Common language.
Q. 3. Write one definition of Nationalism.
Ans. According to Hayes, “Nationalism is a Unique Combinations of Nationality, Nation State and Partriotism”.
Q. 4. Who is the main supporter of the Principle of One Nation, One State?
Ans. J.S. Mill and Woodrow Wilson.
Q. 5. Who are the main critics of the Principle of One Nation, One State?
Ans. Bluntschli and Lord Acton.
Q. 6. Mention one distinction between Nation and State.
Ans. State has four essential elements but no essential elements of nation.
Q. 7. Give one argument in favour of Mono-National State.
Ans. Mono-National State is based on democratic principle.
Q. 8. Give one argument against Mono-National State.
Ans. If theory of Mono-National State is accepted, then all the modern states will be divided into small parts.
Q. 9. Define Nation.
Ans. 1. According to Barker, “A Nation is a community of persons living in a definite territory and thereby bound together by the bonds of mutual love.”
2. According to Gilchrist, “Nation is the state plus something else the unit of the people organised in one State.”
Q. 10. Mention the name of any four factors which promote feelings of Nationalism.
Ans. 1. Common Motherland.
2. Common Language.
3. Common Religion.
4. Common Culture.
Q. 11. Mention two differences between Nation and State.
Ans. 1. State has four essential attributes— population, fixed territory, government and sovereignty. But elements of Nation are not fixed.There is no essential element of a Nation.
2. State has the element of sovereignty and it is essential for the existence of the State. But sovereignty is not essential for the Nation.
Q. 12. Give the meaning of Nationalism.
Ans. Generally speaking, nationalism means devotion for the nation. It is an emotional form to express the feeling of nationalism in a unified manner. This force inspires nationalism to be united in the form of a Nation.
Q. 13. Give two definitions of Nationalism.
Ans. 1. According to Hayes, “Nationalism is a unique combination of Nationality, Nation State and Patriotism.”
2. According to Hans Kohin, “Nationalism is first and foremost a state of mind and act of consciousness.”
Q. 14. Describe the meaning and definition of Nation.
Ans. The word ‘Nation’ comes from the Latin word ‘Natus’ which means ‘born’. A Nation, therefore, means people having common origin or coming from a common stock. This is the ethnic view regarding the meaning of Nation. According to Burgess, “A Nation is a population of an ethnic unity, inhabiting a territory of a geographic unity.” According to Bluntschli, “Nation is a union of masses of men bound together, specially by language and customs in a common civilisation which gives them a sense of unity and distinction from all foreigners.” In brief, a Nation is a group of people bound together by certainties like religion, culture, traditions, conventions and literature, etc., in such a manner that they have a sense of oneness.
Q. 15. Distinguish between State and Nation.
Ans. Following are the distinctions between State and Nation:
1. State has four essential elements, but elements of Nation are not fixed.
2. The elements of a Nation may change and they go on changing, but the elements of State are permanent and they are always the same.
3. Idea of oneness is essential for the Nation but not for the State.
4. Definite territory is essential for the State but not for the Nation.
Q. 16. What are the factors that help in the emergence of a Nation?
Ans. 1. Common Motherland: Every human being has love for his motherland. One who does not love his motherland is devoid of human heart. People belonging to one place are mutually bound by their love for motherland.
2. Common Race: According to the ‘word meaning’ of nationality, the people belonging to the same race or community are the only basis of nationality.
3. Common Language: Common language is a significant factor in the emergence of a nation. With the help of language, people understand and come nearer to each other. According to Garner, “Community of language is the most important factor in moulding a people into a nationality.”
4. Common Religion: Common religion also equally contributes to the nationality.
Q. 17. What do you understand by Nationalism?
Ans. Modern age is an age of Nationalism. Generally speaking, Nationalism means devotion for the nation.
1. According to Hayer, “Nationalism is a unique combination of Nationality; Nation-State and Patriotism’’.
2. According to C.D. Burns, “It is a sentimental political concept directly related to the struggle for power, which respects the individuality of State, recognises the variations in law and government and separates group from group on the basis of ideals and beliefs.” Nationalism is an emotional form to express the feeling of Nationalism in a unified manner. This force inspires Nationalism to be united in the form of a Nation.
Q. 18. Explain four elements of Nationalism.
Ans. Following are the main elements of Nationalism.
1. Common Motherland: Every human being has love for his motherland. People belonging to one place are mutually bound by their love for their motherland.
2. Common Race: According to the ‘word meaning’ of Nationality, the people belonging to the same race or community are the only basis of Nationality. People belonging to the same race have the same language, culture, religion history, literature, traditions and conventions. Thus, there is the racial unity and the people have a sense of awakening.
3. Common Language: Common language is also a significant factor in the making of Nationality. It is through the language that one can express one’s views to another and can also know the views of the other.
4. Common Interest: The people who have the common economic, political, religious, social interests must unite together under one banner. This is somewhat natural, common interests are more important even than the common race, language, religion and history.
Q. 19. Mention four hindrances in the way of Nationalism.
Ans. 1. Absence of Emotional Integration: The Nation which don’t have the same race, religion culture and civilisation, lack emotional integration. We can’t dream of Nationalism in the absence of emotional integration.
2. Communalism: Communalism divides a Nation into mutually opposed races, communities and classes. People fight in the name of religion. Consequently, national integration is ruined and national progress is obstructed.
3. Illiteracy: Illiteracy is an enemy of Nationalism. Only the literate people make the progress of Nationalism possible.
4. Provincialism: Provincialism is very harmful for nationalism. People’s outlook becomes narrow because of provincialism.
Q. 20. Mention four merits of Nationalism.
Ans. Following are the main merits of Nationalism.
1. Nationalism is the inspirer of Patriotism: Nationalism develops patriotic feelings. A man is prepared to make any sacrifice for the glory and safety of the country.
2. Nationalism teaches Sacrifice: Nationalism inculcates the feeling of sacrifice in the minds of its members.
3. Nationalism is a unifying Factor: Nationalism dominates mutual struggle and jealousy. The word ‘Nation’ is a symbol of unity and it creates religious and cultural unity.
4. Nationalism created Consciousness of Liberty: As the feelings of nationalism develops, the state struggles for freedom.
Q. 21. Mention four demerits of Nationalism.
Ans. 1. One Nation and One State Principle is dangerous for World Peace: By accepting this principle, the world government can’t be established.
2. Nationalism teaches to hate other Nations: A Nation upholding the values of Nationalism regards its nation as superior to others and thereby hatred for other nations is created.
3. Nationalism provokes War: Nationalism was the main cause of Second World War. When a Nation considers itself superior to the other nations, it claims to rule over the other nations. This feeling ultimately results in war.
4. Nationalism produces Imperialism: Nationalism helps in the progress of imperialism since it encourages stronger Nations to overpower other nations.