Q. 1. Which amendment of the constitution added the word ‘Secular’ in the Preamble?
Ans. 42nd Amendment.
Q. 2. Mention one merits of Secularism
Ans. Secularism is more democratic.
Q. 3. Is India a Secular State?
Ans. India is a Secular State. By inserting the word ‘Secular’ in the Preamble of the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act, India was declared as a Secular State.
Q. 4. Write one characteristic of Secularism.
Ans. In a secular state, there is no state religion.
Q. 4. What is the meaning of Secular State?
Ans. A Secular State is one that protects all religions equally and does not uphold any religion as the state religion.
Q. 6. Which religion is the official religion of India?
Ans. India has no official religion.
Q. 6. What is the essence of Secularism?
Ans. The essence of secularism is that no one should be discriminated against on the grounds of their religious practices and beliefs. All forms of domination related to religion should end.
Q. 8. What is the meaning of the word Secular?
Ans. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s dictionary the meaning of the word Secular is “Worldly or material, not religious or spiritual.” Encyclopedia Britainnica says ‘Secular’ means having no concern with religions or spritual matters, anything which is distinct, opposed to or not connected with religion or ecclesiastical things, temporal as opposed to spiritual or ecclesiastical.”
Q. 9. Write two definitions of ‘Secular State’.
Ans. 1. According to Donald E. Smith, “The Secular State is a State which guarantees individual and corporate freedom of religion; deals with the individual as a citizen irrespective of his religion, nor does it seek either to promote or interfere with religion.”
2. According to Venkataraman, “The State as such is neither religious, nor anti-religious but wholly detached from religious dogmas and activities and is thus neutral in religion.”
Q. 10. What is Secularism?
Ans. The dictionary meaning of Secularism is “Indifference or rejection or exclusion of religion and religious considerations”. Secularism rejects religion completely. It rather supports anti-religious feelings. Secularism implies a way of life and conduct guided purely by materialistic considerations. It holds that materialism alone benefits mankind while religious feelings retard it. But in its modern meaning Secularism means freedom of religion and noninterference policy of State in religious activity.
Q. 11. What is the meaning of Secularism in India?
Ans. In India, Secularism does not mean the indifference of the State towards religion, rather it means giving respect to all religions by the State. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar has said in the Constituent Assembly, “Secularism does not mean that we shall not take into consideration the religious sentiments of the people. All that what a Secular State means is that Parliament shall not be competent to impose any particular religion on the rest of the people.”
Q. 12. Mention four forces that
Ans. Following are the main forces and factors which threaten the growth of Secular State in India:
1. Communalism: Communalism is the main hindrance in the growth of Secularism. Communalism now pervades the country.
2. Misuse of religion by Political Parties: Political Parties and politicians misuse religion for their political end. In fact, the politicisation of religion is done in India.
3. Casteism: Many fundamentalists use caste as the basis of gaining majority in the elections.
4. Lack of Toleration: Lack of toleration among the people is a big hindrance in the path of Secularism. Due to lack of tolerance, constructive criticism assumes the form of communal riots.
Q. 13. Write down any four Secular provisions made in the Indian Constitution.
Ans. The Constitution of India establishes India as a Secular State.
1. By the 42nd Amendment, the word ‘Secularism’ is included in the Preamble of the Constitution.
2. In India, there is no state religion.
3. Under the Indian Constitution all religions are treated alike.
4. The State cannot make any discrimination on the basis of religion.
Q. 14. Write down the criticism of Indian Secularism.
Ans. Indian Secularism has been criticised on the following grounds:
1. Indian Secularism is not absolute: Under the Indian Constitution, Right to freedom of religion is given to every person. But the Right to freedom of religion is not absolute. Article 25 permits the State to regulate economic, financial or other secular activities which may be associated with religious practice.
2. Rights of Minorities: Under the Indian Constitution, minorities are given certain rights. In the name of minority rights, State can unjustly interfere in Hindu religious affairs.
3. Meaning of Secularism not clear: In India, the real meaning of Secularism is not clear. People with different ideas try to colour the picture of Secularism in India. They try to impose their particular conceptions in regard to these matters with disastrous effects on own young nationhood.
4. Continuance of religions observances in official functions : Ministers usually take oath with some rituals of their religion. Inauguration of ships, institutions, etc., is done through vedic hymns or matrias-Brahmins are called to perform rituals. When resident Dr. Rajendra Prasad, a devoted Hindu took part in so many religious functions, it was difficult for an average Muslim to believe that the Indian State was Secular.