Q. 1. What is the tenure of the members of Election Commission?
Ans. The tenure of the members of Election Commission is six years.
Q. 2. Define the term candidate.
Ans. Candidate is the one who contests election to the legislative bodies.
Q. 3. Define the term nomination.
Ans. Nomination means act of offering one’s name as candidate for elections.
Q. 4. Who issues the notification of an election?
Ans. For election to the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, notification is issued by the President. For the legislative assembly election, notification is used by the Governor.
Q. 5. By which allegation can the members of the Election Commission be removed?
Ans. The members of the Election Commission can be removed on the charges of misbehaviour or incapacity.
Q. 6. What does EVM stands for?
Ans. Electronic Voting Machine.
Q. 7. What does FPTP stand for?
Ans. It stands for First Past the Post.
Q. 8. How many seats are reserved for Scheduled castes in the Lok Sabha?
Ans. 84 seats are reserved for SCs in the Lok Sabha.
Q. 9. How many seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha?
Ans. 47 Seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha.
Q. 10. Which states have more than 30 Lok Sabha Constituencies?
Ans. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh.
Q. 11. What is the countermanding of election?
Ans. In an election, if a candidate dies, election in that constituency is countermanded. Countermanded means postponement of the election in the event of the death of a candidate.
Q. 12. Describe any one test of a good electoral system.
Ans. For the successful electoral system, the Election Commission should be completely independent without any government control.
Q. 13. Mention salary of the members of Election Commission of India.
Ans. The members of Election Commission of India get a salary of ₹2,50,000.
Q. 14. Why do we need elections?
Ans. 1. Without elections democracy is not possible and the rule of the people is neither possible nor desirable.
2. Without elections it is not possible to select the representatives. It is not possible for all the people to sit at one place and select the representatives on the basis of knowledge and education. Hence, elections are essential for a democratic system.
Q. 15. Write down the functions of election in a democratic state.
Ans. 1. Elections give chance to voters to take part in the political affairs of the country.
2. Through elections voters can choose who will form the government.
3. Through elections voters can choose the party whose policies will guide the government.
4. Elections provide education to the voters.
5. Elections are the training ground for the people in the art of government.
Q. 16. Write a short note on the List System of Proportional Representation.
Ans. List System is one of the methods of proportional representation. In the list system multiple-member constituencies are formed. Under this system, the election is not contested by the candidates but by the political parties. Each party can put up as many candidates as the seats to be filled in. Each party presents a list of its candidates and the names of candidates are written in the list in accordance with the wishes of the party.
Each voter is given one vote and he can cast this vote in favour of any list. It means that the voter does not cast his vote in favour of a candidate, rather he casts his vote in favour of party. After the elections are over, the required quota is found out. The quota is determined in the same way as is determined in case of single transferable vote system. After this, the votes casted in favour of each list are counted and this way the candidates are declared elected.
Q. 17. What do you understand by Proportional Representation ? Name any two countries where this system is functioning?
Ans. Proportional Representation aims at securing for each group or party, representation in the legislature in proportion to voting strength. Under the system, the majority of voters should have majority of the representatives but a minority of the electors should have a minority of the representatives.
None of the groups shall be deprived of its representation and shall be represented according to the strength of its following. This system removes the defects of Single Member System according to which a successful candidate would necessarily have the majority of votes and the other votes who did not vote for him went unrepresented.
There are two methods of Proportional Representation:
(1) Single Transferable Vote System or Hare Scheme.
(2) List System.
Methods of the system of Proportional Representation do ensure representation to minorities in proportion to their voting strength. Proportional Representation system nowadays exists in America and Canada.
Q. 18. What do you understand by the Minority Representation? Mention any two methods of Minority Representation.
What is the problem of Minorities Representation? Mention any one method of Minority Representation.
Ans. The issue of minority representation becomes of special significance in a country which is inhabited by several socio-cultural minorities based on religion, caste, language, etc. The term minority representation means the provision of some special devices through which all minorities get sufficient representation in the elective bodies of the country.
Many methods have been suggested for the representation of minorities. Any of them suitable in the particular conditions of a country can be adopted. Methods of minority representation There are a number of methods of minority representation.
(i) Proportional Representation System. Proportional Representation System aims at giving representation to various minorities in proportion to the votes polled by them. Under this method, none of the groups shall be deprived of its representation and shall be represented according to the strength of its following.
(ii) Limited Vote System. Under this system, multi-member constituencies are required. Each voter is allowed to cast a smaller number of votes than there are seats to be contested. A voter has to distribute his votes among as many candidates as there are votes to be casted.
Q. 19. Explain the Single Transferable Vote System.
Ans. Single Transferable Vote System is also called the Hare Scheme or Andre Scheme. This system requires multi-member constituencies. The minimum number of seats in a multi-member constituency is three. The voter has only one vote but he can indicate on the ballot paper his first preference, second preference, third preference and so on. The voter casts his vote in favour of many candidates.
If the candidate who is given first preference vote by the voter is not elected then his vote is transferred to his second preference, and if the candidate of second preference is not elected, then the vote will be transferred to his third preference. This way the vote will go on transferring till the candidate of the voter’s choice is not elected. In order to get elected, a candidate has to obtain a quota of votes: According to Hare, the method for determining the quota is as follows:
Andre has given another method of finding out the required quota which is as follows:
Q. 20. Explain Functional Representations.
Ans. In almost all the countries the system of Territorial Representation has been adopted. G.D.H. Cole and a few writers are of the opinion that this system of representation is wrong. They are of the view point that the same representative cannot truly represent different interests and professions. They are of the view that a person belonging to a particular profession being their representative alone can protect the interests of the people of his own profession.
They uphold this view on the ground that he possesses the best knowledge of his own profession. There are practical difficulties involved in the functional representation. What should be the principle according to which the number of representatives should be assigned to each profession or vocation? But if number is to be the basis of such representation, the one group would predominate. Thus, an equitable representation of various professions would be impossible.
Q. 21. What is Indirect Democracy?
Ans. In Indirect democracy people participate in law-making indirectly. People elect some representatives and these representatives act according to the wishes of the people. Their main aim is to promote the welfare of the people. They frame laws for the State and run the administration in the best interests of the people. The entire country is divided into equal electoral constituencies and from each constituency one representative is elected. The representatives are elected for a fixed period and after the expiry of their term fresh elections are held. This system prevails in almost all the countries of the world today.
Q. 22. What do you understand by direct democratic devices ? Mention one device of direct democracy.
Ans. Direct democracy is the real or true democracy. In such a system of government the people directly participate in the government of the country. The system prevailed in the past in India, Rome and Greek City States. The population of States used to be very less in those days and very few people enjoyed the rights of citizenship.
It was possible for the people to assemble at a particular place for the purpose of law-making in those times. But it is not possible to practise direct democracy completely in the present age. Some devices have been used in certain countries to remove the defects of Indirect democracy. Switzerland is famous for the use of these democratic devices. These devices are — Initiative, Referendum, Recall and Plebiscite.
Q. 23. Explain any two devices of Direct democracy.
Ans. Following are the two devices of direct democracy:
1. Initiative. This device gives the power to the voters to get the law passed in accordance with their wishes. If a specified number of voters demand the making of a particular law, the legislature cannot reject it of its own. If the legislature makes a law according to the demand of the people, it is good, and if the legislature does not agree with the view-point of the voters, then view point of the entire electorate is sought. If the majority of the voters favour the law, then it is to be passed by the legislature.
2. Referendum. The method of referendum gives the final authority to the people to accept or reject the laws passed by the legislature. If the legislature passes a law which is not in accordance with the wishes of the people, the people can stop the execution of such a law. The system prevailing in Switzerland is that the opinion of the people is sought before the execution of laws.
Q. 24. Distinguish between Direct and Indirect Democracy.
Ans. Democracy is of two types — Direct democracy and Indirect democracy. Following are the differences between the two:
(1) In direct democracy people directly participate in the government of the country, while in indirect democracy people indirectly participate in the government.
(2) In direct democracy people directly participate in law-making while in indirect democracy participation in law-making is indirect.
(3) Selection of magistrates is done directly in direct democracy while in indirect democracy, selection of magistrate is done indirectly.
(4) In direct democracy the institutions of initiative, referendum and recall exist, but no initiative and referendum is present in indirect democracy.
Q. 25. What do you understand by Territorial Representation? Mention any two merits of the system.
Ans. Territorial Representation is adopted by most of the modern democratic States. Territorial representation means representation based on territorial divisions. In this system the total electorate of the country is divided into territorial units called constituencies, with more or less equal number of voters. Territorial constituencies are of two types — Single member and multi-member constituencies. A single-member constituency elects one representative while multi-member constituencies elect more than two representatives. But in practice, single member constituency is adopted in majority of the states.
Merits : Two merits of the territorial representation are as follows :
(1) Simple System: The method of territorial representation is a very simple method of election and even the ordinary man understands it.
(2) National Integration: Territorial representation secures the representation of the whole population and thus helps in the process of national integration.
Q. 26. Write a short note on Adult Franchise in India.
Ans. Article 324 of the Constitution lays down that the elections to the Lok Sabha and to the Legislative Assembly of each state shall be held on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise. In India, Universal Adult Franchise was introduced and followed in 1950. Every person, both male and female, who is a citizen of India and is not less than 18 years is entitled to enjoy the right to vote in elections. A citizen of India of eighteen years who is otherwise disqualified on the grounds of non-residence, insanity, corrupt practice, is not entitled to be registered as a voter.
Q. 27. How is independence of Election Commission of India ensured?
Ans. To ensure the independence of Election Commission for fair election, the Constitution of India has made some provisions. These provisions are as follows :
(i) The Election Commission is a statutory body which enjoys constitutional sanction. The existence of the Commission does not depend upon the sweet will of the Union Government. It is the creation of the Constitution and the Union Government cannot abolish it as and when it so desires.
(ii) The Chief Election Commissioner cannot be removed from his office except in like manner and on the like grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court, and other Election Commissioners cannot be removed from office except on the recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner.
(iii) The conditions of service of the Chief Election Commissioners cannot be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.
Q. 28. Write a short note on Multi-Member Commission.
Explain the composition of Election Commission.
Ans. Art. 324 of the Constitution lays down that the Election Commission consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and a number of other Election Commissioners that the President may from time to time fix. The appointment of Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners is made by the President. Before each general election, the President also appoints, in consultation with the Election Commission, such Regional Commissioners as he considers necessary to assist the Election Commission.
At present the Election Commission is a multi-member body consisting of three members. The tenure and other service conditions of the Election Commission are determined by the President. Generally, the Election Commissioner is appointed for a period of six years. The conditions of service of the Chief Election Commissioner shall not be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.
Q. 29. How does the Election Commission ensures fair and free elections?
Ans. Election Commission ensures fair and free election by following ways:
(1) Election Commission keeps a check on the role of money.
(2) Election Commission decides where polling booths should be set up so that electorates are not required to travel a long distance.
(3) Election Commission ensures that only those persons cast their vote, who are entitled to it.
(4) Election Commission orders a fresh election in a Constituency or a polling booth if malpractices has vitiated the electoral process.
(5) The Election Commission prepares a Code of Conduct for all political parties and independent candidates who are contesting elections.
Q .30. List any four functions of the Election Commission.
Describe any four functions of the Election Commission.
Ans. (1) Election Commission supervises, directs and controls the elections. Such elections include elections to Parliament, the legislature of every State and to the offices of President and Vice-President.
(2) Election Commission prepares electoral rolls and delimitations of constituencies. It also considers the objections raised in this regard. Revision of electoral rolls takes place before every general elections.
(3) Election Commission appoints returning officers and assistant returning officers to conduct the election.
(4) Election Commission allots election symbols to political parties and to the independent candidates. If there is any dispute or controversy about the symbol, an appeal against the decision of the Election Commission can be made to the Supreme Court.
Q .31. What is the salary and term of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners?
Ans. In December, 1993 the Indian Parliament passed the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Amendment Act, 1993. As per the provisions of the Act, the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners are paid a salary equal to the salary of a judge of the Supreme Court. Thus, each of them is paid ₹2,50,000 per month as salary. The Act further provides that the Chief Election Commissioner or an Election Commissioner holds office for a term of six years from the date on which he assumes his office. But if the Chief Election Commissioner or an Election Commissioner attains the age of sixty-five years before the expiry of the term of six years, he shall vacate his office on the date on which he attains the said age.