Q. 1. In 1966, who contested against Indira Gandhi for the post of the Prime Minister from among Congress MPs?
Ans. Morarji Desai
Q. 2. After the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri, which two leaders of Congress Party contested against each other to become leader of Congress Parliamentary Party?
Ans. After the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri, there was an intense competition between two leaders. They were – Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi
Q. 3. Who represented Congress (O) and Congress (R) after the split of Congress Party?
Ans. Congress (O) was represented by the Syndicate and Congress (R) was represented by Indira Gandhi.
Q. 4. What is meant by the term ‘Congress Syndicate’?
Ans. Congress Syndicate refers to a group of popular and influential leaders within the Congress.
Q. 5. Which theoretical argument did Ram Manohar Lohia give in defence on non Congressism?
Ans. Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interest of ordinary and poor people; therefore, the coming together of the non- Congress parties was necessary for reclaiming democracy for the people.
Q. 6. Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?
(i) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
(ii) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
(iii) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.
(iv) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.
Ans. (i) True
Q. 7. What was the slogan of Indira Gandhi during the elections of 1971?
Ans. Garibi Hatao
Q. 8. Name the leaders who gave the following slogans.
(i) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(ii) Garibi Hatao
Ans. (i) Lal Bahadur Shastri
(ii) Indira Gandhi
Q. 9. Which of the following statement about thevGrand Alliance 1971 is correct?
The Grand Alliance..........
(i) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congressvparties.
(ii) had a clear political and ideological programme.
(iii) was formed by all non-Congress parties.
Ans. (i) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
Q. 10. Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections?
Ans. Indira gave the slogan of “Garibi Hatao” to attract the voters belonging to the poor class, peasants, labourers, landless farmers and other weaker sections of the society.
Q. 11. Whom would you identify with the following slogans / phrases?
(i) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(ii) Indira Hatao!
(iii) Garibi Hatao!
Ans. (i) Lal Bahadur Shastri
(ii) Grand Alliance
(iii) Indira Gandhi
Q.12 . What was ‘Samyukt Vidhayak Dal’? What was its role in the formation of coalitions?
Ans. The Samyukt Vidhayak Dal (SVD) was formed in Bihar by coalition of SSP, PSP, CPS and Jana Sangh to oppose Congress. The formation of SVD led the foundation for formation of coalition governments in the country both at the Central and the State level.
Q. 13. What is the importance of the year 1967 in the history of Indian politics?
Ans. The year 1967, brought the ‘Political Earthquake’ where, for the first time after independence, the popularity of the Congress Party declined and bagged less number of seats as compared to those bagged in the previous elections.
Q. 14. Examine the challenge of political succession after the death of Jawaharlal Nehru.
Ans. The decade of 1960s is referred to as the ‘dangerous decade’ in Indian politics. The reasons for this being no solutions found for poverty, inequality, regionalism, communalism, etc. The disintegration of country and disintegration of democracy were looking as the likely events. Political instability arose after demise of Jawaharlal Nehru with two questions in place:
a) ‘Who after Nehru?’
b) ‘What after Nehru?’
Q. 15. Write a note on Prime Ministerial tenure of Lal Bahadur Shastri.
Ans. Lal Bahadur Shastri was unopposed and unanimously chosen as the leader of Congress Parliamentary Party and became the second Prime Minister of India (1964-1966). Prior to becoming Prime Minster, he was a cabinet member for three years and belonged to the state of Uttar Pradesh. India faced the after effects of the economic crisis that arose during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. India defeated Pakistan under his courageous leadership in 1964. His tenure also witnessed many droughts and famines making the lives of the farmers miserable. This led to the criticism of his slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’ as the problems of the farmers remained unsolved. He passed away while his visit to Tashkent (erstwhile USSR) to sign peace treaty with Pakistan.
Q. 16. What does ‘defection’ stand for in Indian politics?Highlight any two demerits of this practice.
Ans. Defection is a situation where an elected representative leaves the party on whose ticket he/she had been elected.Demerits of defection are:
(i) It makes and breaks the government.
(ii) The scenario of “Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram” developed with many persons switching the parties very frequently.
Q. 17. How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings.
(i) Follow the footsteps of the party president.
(ii) Listen to the majority group.
(iii) Secret ballot voting on every issue.
(iv) Consult the senior and the experienced leaders of the party.
Ans. (i) Following the footsteps of party inculcates discipline and unity in the party. However, it develops a sense of dictatorship or autocracy in the mind of the leader.
(ii) Listening to the majority group maintains democracy within the party. However, it creates factions within the party.
(iii) Secret ballot voting on every issue strengthens the democratic setup of the party. However, it delays the process of decision making process within the party.
(iv) Consulting the senior and the experienced leaders of the party provides experienced guidance for the steps to be taken by the party. However, the shortcoming of this is that there is a stoppage to new ideas and innovations.
Q. 18. What does the term ‘Syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?
Ans. The term ‘Syndicate’ referred to a group of popular and influential leaders within the Congress. The Syndicate consisted of experienced major leaders who played a major role in the installation of Indira Gandhi as the Prime Minister by ensuing her elections as the leader of the Parliamentary Party. They expected her to depend on them for guidance and advice. Soon Indira Gandhi started to assert her position in the party as well as in the government. She introduced a number of reforms. The Syndicate, though agreed to give consent to these reforms, had serious reservations about the same.
Q. 19. How did the factional rivalry between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi resulted in the split of Congress in 1969?
Ans. Split of Congress in 1969:
(i) Left wing orientation programme of Indira. he got the Congress Working Committee to adopt a Ten Point Programme in May 1967. This programme included social control of banks, nationalisation of General Insurance, and ceiling on urban property.
(ii) Selection of V.V. Giri as the President against Syndicate interest towards N. Sanjeeva Reddy.
(iii) Abolition of privy purse
(iv) Side-lined Syndicate – In November 1969, the Congress group led by the ‘Syndicate’ came to be referred to as the Congress (Organisation) and the group led by Indira Gandhi came to be called the Congress (Requisitionists).
Q.20 . Explain any two reasons for the popularity of Indira Gandhi during 1971 elections.
Analyse any three factors which enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi in the early 1970s.
What were the factors that led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970’s?
Ans. Factors that led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970’s:-
(i) Indira Gandhi won 1971 elections decisively. Soon after 1971 elections, a major crisis broke out in East Pakistan resulting in the formation of Bangladesh. This crisis was followed by Indo-Pak War of 1971. India had a decisive victory in that War and Pakistani forces were forced to surrender in front of Indian forces. These events added to the popularity of Indira Gandhi. Even the opposition parties admired her statesmanship.
(ii) Her party swept through all State Assembly elections held in 1972.
(iii) Due to the socialist orientation, she was seen as a protectorate of the poor and the under privileged.
Q. 21. With which objectives DMK made its entry into Indian politics?
Ans. DMK made its entry into Indian politics:
(i) First, it demanded the restoration of the original name of Kallakudi railway station which had been renamed Dalmiapuram, after an industrial house from the North. Indian economic and cultural symbols.
(ii) The third agitation was against the craft education scheme of the State government, which it alleged was linked to the Brahmanical social outlook. It also agitated against making Hindi the country’s official language.