Very Short Question With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. For whom was the term ‘humanist’ used by the early fifteenth century?
Ans. By the early fifteenth century, the term ‘humanist’ was used for those masters who taught grammer, poetry, rhetoric, history and moral philosophy.
Q. 2. Why stress was given on close reading of writings of ancient Roman and Greek authors?
Ans. Ancient Roman and Greek civilisations were considered as distinctive civilisations. According to Petrarch, this distinctiveness could be understood only through the actual words of the ancient Greeks and the Romans. Therefore, Petrarch gave stress on close reading of writings of ancient Roman and Greek authors.
Q. 3. What do you understand by humanism? Give examples of humanism in art and literature of the Renaissance period.
Ans. Humanism is an approach in which existing problems are given importance. Writers and artists of the Renaissance period showed a special interest in the present men. So, art and literature of that period are called humanist.
Q. 4. When did the modern age start? Which factors contributed to it?
Ans. The modern age started with the decline of feudal system. The four factors, viz. development of trade, emergence of towns, rise of middle class in the society and the Renaissance contributed to its rise. Geographical discoveries also contributed significantly to it.
Q. 5. What is meant by the Renaissance?
Ans. Renaissance means ‘rebirth’. It occurred in Italy in the fifteenth century. A new movement of knowledge started in Europe after a long dark age of ignorance. The people of Europe again began to take interest in European ancient culture and civilisation.
Q. 6. Write down any two good effects of religious wars on the life of Europeans.
Ans. (i) These wars expanded the knowledge of geographical discoveries.
(ii) Europeans came in contact with Islamic world. They adopted the knowledge of art and science of the Islamic world.
Q. 7. Tell any three main features of the Renaissance.
Ans. (i) Italian towns were the first centres of the Renaissance.
(ii) A new style of art emerged.
(iii) Architecture and literature developed.
Q. 8. Write down any two effects of the Renaissance.
Ans. (i) Superstitions ended with the emergence of new ideas, sentiments and assumptions.
(ii) Humanism spread among people.Consequently, man became the main topic of literary and artistic works.
Q. 9. Who were known as the inventors of printing press? Which was the first printed book in Europe?
Ans. Gutenberg and Castor were known as the inventors of printing press. They invented printing press in the first half of the fifteenth century. The first printed book in Europe was probably the Bible.
Q. 10. What is meant by Reformation movement?
Ans. By the Reformation movement, we mean a movement which was launched by Martin Luther of Germany against the prevailing wrong practices in the Roman Church. Supporters of this movement abolished corrupt practices and tried to establish improved practices.
Q. 11. Write down any two results of the Protestant Reformation Movement.
Ans. (i) People’s attitude towards religion changed and Christianity got divided into two parts.
(ii) The Pope himself came to know about his weaknesses and saved his position by the Counter Reformation.
Q. 12. What were the real motivating factors behind voyages of discoveries?
Ans. (i) To enslave people by discovering new places and earning big profits from slave trade.
(ii) A strong urge of increasing trade and earning money.
(iii) To earn name and fame by obtaining spices and gold.
Q. 13. What were the results of growth in commerce and trade?
Ans. (i) Growth in commerce and trade made Europeans prosperous.
(ii) European countries made the discovered lands their colonies and used them as markets.
Q. 14. Which two persons gave the greatest contribution to the popularity of Florence?
Ans. Dante Alighieri and Giotto gave the greatest contribution to the popularity of Florence. Dant Alighieri wrote on religious themes whereas Giotto painted life-like portraits which were quite different from stiff figures made by earlier artists.
Q. 15. What is meant by the term ‘Renaissance Man’ ? Give an example.
Ans. The term ‘Renaissance Man’ is generally used to describe an individual who has many interests and skills. There were many great individuals in the Renaissance period who had several interests and were skilled in many arts. For example, a person could be a scholar, diplomat, theologist and artist.
Q. 16. Why did humanists name the beginning of the fifteenth century as the new age or modern age?
Ans. Humanists named the beginning of the fifteenth century as new age or modern age in order to differentiate it from medieval age. They argued that the Church had complete control over men’s minds as all the learning of the Greeks and Romans had been blotted out. But in the beginning of the fifteenth century, this learning revived.
Q. 17. Discuss in brief the subject-matter of Ptolemy’s Almagest.
Ans. Ptolemy’s Almagest was a work on astronomy. It was written in Greek before 140 CE and later it was translated into Arabic. It carries the Arabic definite article ‘al’, which brings out its Arabic connection
Q. 18. Give a brief introduction of Ibn Rushd.
Ans. Ibn Rushd was an Arab philosopher of Spain. He tried to resolve the contradiction between philosophical knowledge and religious beliefs. His method was adopted by Christian thinkers.
Q. 19. Which two things played a significant role in transmitting humanist ideas to people ?
Ans. (i) Humanist subjects began to be taught in schools and colleges.
(ii) Art, architecture and literature also played an effective role in transmitting humanist ideas.
Q. 20. Who was Andreas Vesalius?
Ans. Andreas Vesalius (1514 – 64) was a professor of medicine at the University of Padua. He was the first person who dissected the human body. It led to the beginning of modern physiology.
Short Question With Answer (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. What changes helped in the revival of Italian culture after the fall of the Western Roman Empire?
Ans. Political and cultural centres in Italy fell into ruin after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. No unified government was there during those times.
Pope was not quite strong in European politics although he was sovereign in his own state. For a long time, regions of Western Europe were reshaped by feudal relations and were unified under the Latin Church. Changes were being brought in eastern Europe under the Byzantine Empire. Islam was creating a common civilisation in further west.
Italy was a divided and weak country. These changes helped in the revival of Italian culture.
Q. 2. What is meant by the Renaissance?
Ans. The Renaissance is called by the names of rebirth, reawakening, re-rise of intellectual awakening and culture, etc. After the thirteenth century such circumstances rose as made man awakened. This awakening is known as the Renaissance. The Renaissance is originally a French word, which literally means ‘to rise again’. In context of analysis of European history, the Renaissance has its distinct period. This age is generally considered between the fourteenth and the sixteenth centuries (1350 – 1550 CE). In fact, the beginning of modern Europe is accepted from the Renaissance. In ancient times, Europe was at the peak of civilisation. This peak was seen in Greece and Rome. In medieval age the Greek and Roman civilisations almost vanished. They revived in the Renaissance period. Once again the faith in secular world was shown. Humanism achieved importance. Conservatism was replaced by logic. Natural beauty was again worshipped. All these things had no place in medieval age. But in the Renaissance period, such circumstances rose and re-established the ancient values.
Q. 3. What were the causes of the rise of the Renaissance in Europe?
Ans. The causes of the rise of the Renaissance in Europe were as follows:
(i) The Crusades: The crusades, fought in medieval age, played a special role in showing a path of new learning. These crusades were fought by Christians to free Jerusalem from the Turks. These continued from the end of the eleventh century to the thirteenth century. The crusades deeply influenced the social, economic and intellectual aspects of Europe.
(ii) The Reformation Movement: During the Reformation Movement, many scholars challenged the rights of the Church. Common people began to think for the first time that the Church’s rules were not ultimate. This new approach awakened the ideas of man.
(iii) Geographical Discoveries: Geographical discoveries also revolutionised the ideas of man. Marco Polo’s invention of the compass made voyage easier. The Italian scientist Galileo invented the telescope. Newton systematised scientific valuations about the universe. Copernicus made researches and tried to prove that the earth is not stable, rather it rotates around the sun. These new discoveries gave birth to new ideas.
(iv) Invention of Printing Press: The invention of the printing press greatly contributed to the development of the Renaissance. Earlier, texts existed in a few hand-written copies. Therefore, the expansion of education was very limited. Johannes Gutenberg of Germany set up the first printing press. The invention of the printing press greatly increased the number of books. Now books were available in great numbers which expanded education and exposed the fallacious propagation made by the Church.
(v) The Turks’ Occupation of Constantinople: In 1453 CE, the Turks occupied Constantinople. It greatly strengthened the Renaissance. Terrified by the cruelties inflicted by the Turks, many Greek Christians took shelter in different parts of Europe. The propagation of the Greek civilisation made by these people casted a deep effect on Europeans. This effect tried to re-awaken the European ideology.
Q. 4. Why is it said that the Renaissance started a new age ?
Ans. The Renaissance undoubtedly started a new age. Following were its main reasons :
(i) The Renaissance ended conservative assumptions of ancient and medieval societies. Now people began to discuss their problems.
(ii) It broke the feudal bonds and established nation-states.
(iii) Before the Renaissance, people had blind faith in principles of the Church. But now they began to doubt the truthfulness of these principles and examined everything on the basis of logic. Consequently, an age of scientific thinking started.
(iv) The Renaissance originated many new ideologies in art and literature. Many writers wrote satirical essays and painters attacked on polluted society and politics in their paintings. All these things indicated the beginning of the modern age.
Q. 5. Write a short note on Humanism.
Ans. Humanism was one of the basic features of the Renaissance. Humanism means ‘to take interest in man and respect him’. Humanism studies the problems of man, accepts the importance of human life and tries to improve and make prosper his life. In the Renaissance period, the existing world in which we live was given importance than the next world. This is humanism. The supporters of humanism were called humanists. Petrarch was a leading humanist. He criticised superstitions and lifestyle of religious leaders.
He stressed on leading the existing life happily than thinking about the next life. Italian citizens supported humanism because they were not able to develop their natural instincts because of religious bonds. In fact, a feeling of secularism was the main ideology of humanism.
Q. 6. What were the chief objectives of the Reformation Movement?
Ans. The chief objectives of the Reformation Movement were as follows :
(i) To check religious absolutism and limitless rights of the Pope and other religious leaders.
(ii) To improve moral life of the Pope and other religious leaders.
(iii) To remove corruption spread in the Church and divert attention of religious leaders to spirituality.
(iv) To emphasise the establishment of a national church.
(v) To make common people dependent on God than the Pope, for attainment of salvation.
(vi) To give religious freedom to every man.
Inspite of all these objectives, it can be said that this movement was basically launched to abolish the ancient conservatism of Europe.
Q. 7. Write a short note on the Counter Reformation Movement.
Ans. The Counter Reformation Movement came into existence as a result of the Reformation Movement. In fact, many defects had crept into the Catholicism, but the followers of the Roman Catholic Church did not care for it. Consequently, the Reformation Movement got momentum and many European countries separated themselves from the Roman Church. It worried the Roman Catholic people.
Now they cared for removing defects of the Roman Church. There began efforts to combat the spread of Protestantism. In Spain, Ignatius Loyala set up the Society of Jesus. His followers were called Jesuits.
They visited several places in Germany and France and re-converted people to Catholicism. For preaching their religion, they set up Jesuit schools in China, Africa, India and America also. This movement was known as the Counter Reformation Movement.
Consequently, Catholicism again began to become popular. Reforms in the Roman Church hindered the progress of the Protestantism.
Q. 8. What was the significance of growth of trade and emergence of towns in the Renaissance Age?
Ans. Growth of trade and emergence of towns in the Renaissance Age broke several old traditions and started new things. In fact, all credit of taking Europe to modern age from dark age goes to trade and towns.
I. Significance of Growth of Trade.
The growth of trade had the following significances:
(i) Rise of Middle Class. Growth of trade gave rise to a new class in society. This was middle class, completely different from feudal lords or peasants. This class had wealth and could do anything with the help of money.
(ii) King became strong. Before the growth of trade, the king was only a puppet in the hands of feudal lords. He took money from feudal lords due to which he accepted their whims and wishes. If they were cruel to people, the king tolerated it silently.
But the growth of trade helped in the emergence of a merchant class, which co-operated with the king. The king could take money from this class and thus increased his military power. As military became strong, feudalism ended and nation-states emerged.
(iii) Decline in Power of the Church and the Feudal Lords. The third class needed security. They needed this security not only in a single sphere but in the whole state. They traded in far-off regions. So this class helped the king whole-heartedly. The king became powerful and attacked the autocracies of the Church and the feudal lords and thus became free from them. If it were not so, it had taken hundreds of years in the emergence of modern age.
II. Significance of Emergence of Towns.
Emergence of towns had the following significance:
(i) Freedom from Feudal Slavery. The emergence of towns loosened feudal bonds. Rich merchants lived in towns and gave money to get the towns free. Now feudal lords and kings had no influence over these towns.
(ii) Free Atmosphere. Citizens enjoyed complete freedom in these towns. They could think freely and do any thing that they wished. These free thoughts ended the dark age and co-operated in bringing modern age.
Q. 9. Which customs and traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and the clergy were objected to by the reformists in the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries?
Describe the reasons for the emergence of European Religious Reform Movement (the Protestant Movement).
Ans. The Protestant ‘Religious Reform Movement’ implies the branch of Christianity which was started against customs and traditions of the Roman Catholic Church. Its founder was Martin Luther. Following were the reasons for the emergence of this Religious Reform Movement:
(i) The Church had accumulated abundance of wealth and property. The Pope and priests appointed on high posts began to lead a luxurious life due to which many people began to hate them. It became a main reason for the emergence of the Reformation Movement.
(ii) Posts of priests in the Church were being sold. Consequently, people opposed the Church.
(iii) The Pope and the clergy sold ‘indulgences’. People did not like it and therefore raised a strong voice against the Church.
(iv) The Pope collected many kinds of taxes and duties from people and himself led a luxurious life. So people were against the Church.
Q. 10. Briefly discuss the Arabs’ contribution to science and philosophy.
Ans. Through the middle ages, monks and clergymen were familiar with most of the writings of the Greeks and Romans. But they did not spread these writings widely. In the fourteenth century, many writers read the translated works of Plato and Aristotle. These translations were a contribution of Arab translators who had carefully preserved and translated ancient manuscripts.
While European scholars read Arabic translations of Greek books, Greek scholars translated works of Arabic and Persian scholars, so that they could be transmitted to European. These works were on mathematics, natural science, medicine, astronomy and chemistry. Ptolemy’s ‘Almagest’ carries the Arabic definite article ‘al’ which brings out the Arabic connection.
Among the Muslim writers were Ibn Sina, who was an Arab physician and a philosopher of Bukhara in Central Asia, al-Razi, who was an author of a medical encyclopaedia. They were regarded as men of wisdom in the Italian world.
Ibn Rushd, who was an Arab philosopher of Spain, tried to find solution of tension between religious beliefs and philosophical knowledge. Christian thinkers also adopted his method.