Short Questions with Answers -Culture and Socialisation Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 11

Humanities/Arts : Short Questions with Answers -Culture and Socialisation Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Short Questions with Answers -Culture and Socialisation Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Sociology Class 11.
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Very Short Question With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give meaning of word ‘Culture’?
Ans. In simple words, ways of living, sentiments, philosophy, ideas, machines etc. all are material and non-material things and this is culture. All these things are produced by society and are used by it. In this way culture is that thing on which we can think, work and can keep them with us.

Q. 2. Write main elements of culture.
Ans. Customs, beliefs, traditions, knowledge, rituals, ideals etc. are main elements of culture.
(i) Language and tools of language are also its elements.
(ii) Habits and abilities of society members are also elements of culture.

Q. 3. Give main types of culture.
Ans. There are two types of culture:
(i) Material culture: Such things are part of material culture which we can see and can touch like car, chair, table, book, pen etc.
(ii) Non-material culture: That part of culture which we can’t see or touch like ideas, ideals, traditons, habits etc.

Q. 3. What is Material Culture?
Ans. Meaning of material culture is by that cultural things which have been made by man. This culture is concrete because we can see it and can touch it like T.V., Scooter, Car, Chair, Table, Plane etc. All these things are concrete and are the part of material culture.

Q. 5. What is Non-Material Culture?

Q. 6. Give meaning of Civilisation.
Ans. The useful things, tools or organization, with the help of which man has won over the nature and natural environment is known as civilisation.

Q. 7. What is Acculturation.
Ans. Accuturation is a process in which people of two different cultures come in direct contact with each other and they adopt most of the elements of each other. With this process of adoption of element, many changes come in both cultures.

Q. 8. Give meaning 
Ans. Cognitive aspect of culture states that it is an understanding, means how we make sense of all the information coming to us from our environment. We include art, religion, superstitions, ideas, scientific facts in cognitive aspect of culture.

Q. 9. Give meaning of Normative aspect of culture.
Ans. Normative aspect of culture is related with rules of behaviour. Folkways, mores, customs, laws etc are included in it. These values and rules give direction to social behaviour in different contexts.

Q. 10. Give meaning of material aspect of culture.
Ans. The material aspect of culture refers to technologies, tools, machines, buildings and modes of transportation, as well as instruments of production and communication.

Q. 11. What is meant 
Ans. Socialization is a process of learning in which child learns all the rules, norms, ways of behaviour of living in society. Culture is transmitted from one generation to another through this process.

Q. 12. Give the names of means of Socialisation.
Ans. There are a number of means of Socialisation like
(i) Family
(ii) Play group
(iii) Neighbourhood
(iv) Language
(v) School
(vi) Social institutions
(vii) Needs.

Q. 13. What is Personality?
Ans. Personality is a concept in which the elements of formation of personality such as biological elements, culture, environment, etc are included. When character of a person is formed due to these, it is known as personality.

Q. 14. Culture helps in formation of personality.Explain.
Ans.  Many a times, behaviour of parents is harsh toward children or children are unable to get affection of their parents due to differences between them. That’s why harshness comes in children. A sense of non-cooperation comes in children for society and that’s why they alienate from society.

Q. 15. When alienation comes in person towards society?
Ans. Many a times, behaviour of parents is harsh toward children or children are unable to get affection of their parents due to differences between them. That’s why harshness comes in children. A sense of non-cooperation comes in children for society and that’s why they alienate from society.

Short Question With Answer (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. What is culture?
Ans. Culture is the main characteristic of human society which differentiates it from the animal society. Man becomes social human because of culture and it differentiate one person from another, one group from another and one community from another. We include all the things in culture which a man learns and adopts in this human society like customs, values, laws, ways of wearing, music, language, literature, knowledge, ideals, folkways, mores etc. All these things which are included in social heritage are known as culture.

Q. 2. Give characteristics of culture.
Ans.(i) Culture is transmitted from one generation to another.
(ii) Culture is social.
(iii) Culture can be learned.
(iv) Culture fulfils the needs of society.
(v) Changes often come in culture.
(vi) Culture maintains the social system of society.
(vii) Every society has its own culture.
(viii) Material and non-material things are included in culture.

Q. 3. Give Ogburn’s views about culture.
Or
Give Types of culture given by Ogburn.
Ans. According to Ogburn social heritage is culture and it is of two types.
(i) Material culture : All such things are included in material culture which can be seen and touched such as cloth, table, chair, car, machine etc.
(ii) Non-material culture : All such things are included in non-material culture which cannot be seen and touched such as ideals, traditions, values etc. According to Ogburn, ‘‘It is necessary to differentiate between material and non material culture for analysis.” But here one thing should be kept in mind that they are the interrelated parts of Social institution and society.

Q. 4. What is Cultural lag?
Ans. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff change in different parts of culture never comes with same speed. The speed of change of one part is more as compared to other. But culture is a system. It is made up of many parts. Its different parts are inter-connected and inter-related. This system of culture can be maintained if change in all parts of culture will come with same speed. Actually what happens that if one part of culture, is changed due to any invention then other part of culture, which depends upon that part, also changes. But change in second part comes very late. How much time will this second part will take, depends upon the nature of second part. This lateness goes on for many years because of which problem comes in system. This lagging behind of one part from another is known as cultural lag.

Q. 5. What is Cultural Pluralism?
Ans. Cultural Pluralism is the next form of acculturation. When two cultures come in contact with each other then they transmit each other’s elements and gradually they accommodate with each other. But in this process of accommodation one thing is important and that is these both cultures have the permission to maintain the element of their own culture with the elements of other culture. This condition is known as cultural pluralism.

Q. 6. Give two definitions of Socialisation.
Ans.(i) According to Fichter, ‘‘Socialisation is a process of mutual influence between a person and his fellow men, a process that results in an acceptance of, and adaptation to, the patterns of social behaviour.’’
(ii) According to Kingsley Davis, ‘‘Socialization is a process through which human child grasps the culture and enters in the structure of society.’’

Q. 7. Give two features of Socialisation.
Ans. (i) It is a universal process: The process of socialization is a universal process because it exists in every type of society. Every society transmits all of it rules, norms, values, etc to its next generation and this is a part of this process.
(ii) It is a process of learning: The process of socialization is a process of learning because person learns the norms, values, ways of living in society in it. Child is an animal at the time of his birth. He learns everything while living in society and becomes a social human from an animal.

Q. 8. The process of socialisation is necessary process. Explain.
Ans. The process of socialisation is a necessary process because child is nothing but an animal at the time of his birth. Gradually he lives with other social humans and learns the norms, values and ways of living in society. We can take an example of Gassel who was a scientist. He found two children in the den of wolf. One died after sometime. Second one was moving and crawling like wolf. But gradually he started to learn how to live in society and with other humans. He started to behave with other humans. From this it is clear that the process of socialization is very necessary for a person to become a social animal. Society gives a lot to the person through this process and motivates him to live in the society.

Q. 9. Explain the role of family as a means of Socialisation.
Ans. Family plays the important role in the socialisation of a person. According to some sociologists, the mind of a child is in unconscious state and the effect which family can exert on the unconscious mind, no one can put that type of effect. In childhood we can mould the mind of child in any desired direction. If the behaviour of parents towards child is rude then child will try to go out of control in his growing age and if he will get lots of love and affection then there is every possibility for a child to go in a wrong way. The base of basic education of a child is family. Family tells the child about the traditions, customs, norms, ways of behaviour in the family and society. Family makes the character and personality of the person and plays the most important role in his socialisation.

Q. 10. Explain the role of school as a means of Socialisation.
Ans. School is that means of socialisation which changes an uncivilised child into a civilised child or can say that school gives shape to raw material into a finished product. In school lots of qualities are developed. In school child, studies with other students and many teachers are there in school who exerts a great influence on him. Students always try to imitate the behaviour of the teachers which exerts a great influence on the personality of the child.

Q. 11. What do you mean by Looking glass self?
Ans. Charles H. Cooley has given his views about looking Glass Self. According to Cooley, an individual looks at himself only through this mirror. The way in which we can imagine about our personality by looking into a mirror, in the same way an individual can look into the eyes of others and can come to know about their ideas about his merits, demerits, habits, ways of behaviour etc. It means that by looking into eyes of others, he can judge a lot about himself. For example any one can become happy if he is praised by some one but if he feels ashamed when any one tries to tell his demerits. Every one identify himself from the eyes of others.

Q. 12. What is Self?
Ans. An individual never becomes a social man exactly after his birth. Self develops in him only when he comes in contact with other persons and materials. The meaning of self is that when an individual becomes conscious about functions and ideas. A new born baby never differentiate between other persons but he began to differentiate them on the basis of activities done by them. He began to understand them on this basis. This ability of an individual is known as Ego.

Q. 13. What is meant by Super Ego?
Ans. The meaning of super Ego is by obeying social norms. For this one never cares about any problems and obeys them without any external pressure. He adopts these social norms through his parents and other friends. Gradually he adopts them by identifying them as right or wrong. Stage of super ego is stage of socialization. For whole of his life, an individual comes under constraint to obey these norms and values.

Q. 14. What is ID?
Ans. According to Freud, ID is that part of an individual in which he satisfies his animal instincts or basic instincts. Right from his birth, animal instincts always exist in an individuals. In this, he fulfills his biological needed without checking them as right or wrong. In this way activities of ID are of negative sense.

Q. 15. What is meant by Ego?
Ans. According to Freud, Ego is that state of mind when there is some development of consciousness within an individual. Ego represents the balance of mind and brain. So this is a part of mind in which we can come to know that society has made certain rules to fulfills needs of individual. In this way when he begins to adopt these rules then this is the state of Ego.

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