Q. 1. Who said that, “Men by nature are equal” ?
Q. 2. Who said that, “External vigilance is the price of Liberty”.
Q. 3. Who said that, “A large measure of equality, so far from being Inimical to Liberty, is essential to it” ?
Ans. Prof. Tawny.
Q. 4. Write one essential of positive aspect of equality.
Ans. Equal opportunities to all.
Q. 5. Write two kinds of Equality.
Ans. 1. Economic equality
2. Social equality.
Q. 6. What is Social Equality ?
Ans. Social equality means that no descrimination should be made on the basis of caste, colour, race, creed, sex, religion, etc.
Q. 7. What is Economic Equality ?
Ans. Freedom from the fear of hunger is called economic equality.
Q. 8. What do you mean by Equality ?
Ans. Equality stands for the absence or removal of special privileges to some and denied to others. The state should grant equal civil and political rights to all people, making no discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, religion, etc. All persons should be regarded as equal before the eyes of law. All men and women should be given adequate opportunities to develop their abilities.
Q. 9. Define Equality.
Ans. Some of the important definitions of equality are as under:
According to Barker, “The principle of equality accordingly means that whatever conditions are guaranteed to me, in the form of rights, shall also, and in the same measure be guaranteed to others, and that whatever rights are given to others shall also be given to me.”
According to Prof. Laski, “Undoubtedly, it implies fundamentally a certain levelling process. It means that no man shall be so placed in society that he can over-reach his neighbour to the extent which constituted a denial of the latter’s citizenship”.
Q. 10. Write two features of Equality.
Ans. 1. Equality is not Absolute. Equality is not absolute in nature. It accepts the presence of natural inequalities.
2. Equal Rights for all. Equality stands for equal rights for all citizens.
Q. 11. Mention kinds of Equality.
Ans. 1. Natural Equality
2. Economic Equality.
3. Social Equality
4. Political Equality
5. Civil Equality
6. Legal Equality.
Q. 12. What do you mean by ‘Equality’ ?
Ans. Equality does not mean that all persons may be treated equally, in all respects. Equality stands for the absence or removal of special privileges to some and denied to others. The state should grant equal civil and political rights to all people, making no discrimination on the grounds of race, colour or income. All persons should be regarded as equal before the eyes of law. Equality also means that all men should be given adequate opportunities to develop their abilities. The State should provide suitable opportunities for everyone to develop his own genius.
Q. 13. Mention any two kinds of Equality.
Ans. Economic Equality. Properly understood, economic equality implies the elimination of excessive inequalities of material resources. Economic equality does not mean that everybody should have equal income. But it does mean that all the citizens should have the means to meet their needs. Economic equality also implies the absence of exploitation of man by man or of one class by another.
Social equality. Social equality implies that no distinction is made in the social status of the people on the ground of race, class, caste, sex, religion, etc. It implies that all members of the society are socially equal and no man is recognised as socially superior or inferior to any other member of the community.
Q. 14. What is Political Equality ?
Ans. Political equality means that all the citizens should be treated equally in political sphere. According to Laski, by political equality is meant the equal access of everyone to the avenue of authority. All the citizens should get equal political rights. Every citizen should get the right to vote, right to contest elections, right to get government jobs, right to criticise the government and right to address petitions. Nobody should be discriminated against on the basis of caste, colour, sex, creed, religion and blood. Certain qualifications can be laid down for getting the right to vote but these conditions should not be laid down on the basis of caste, colour, creed, sex and religion.
Q. 15. Define Social Equality.
Ans. Social equality implies that no distinction is made in the social status of the people on the grounds of race, class, caste, sex, religion, etc. It implies that all members of the society are socially equal and no one is recognised as socially superior or inferior to any other member of community. It also means that all persons should be treated equal regardless of wealth, colour, caste and creed. If the society is divided into different castes or classes, that shows absence of social equality—that an untouchable should hold the same status in society as a Brahmin and a lord should not be considered superior to an ordinary citizen.