Q. 1. Who wrote Hind Swaraj ?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi.
Q. 2. How many years Nelson Mandela spent in jail ?
Ans. 28 years in jail.
Q. 3. Mention any two kinds of Liberty.
Ans. 1. Civil liberty 2. Political liberty.
Q. 4. What is Economic Liberty ?
Ans. Economic liberty means security of one’s daily bread and reasonable opportunities for earning it.
Q. 5. Is liberty absolute ?
Ans. Liberty is not absolute.
Q. 6. What is negative liberty ?
Ans. Absence of all restrictions is the meaning of negative liberty.
Q. 7. Who said that, “For me real freedom is freedom from fear and unless you can live free from fear you cannot live a dignified human life.”
Ans. Aung San Suu Kyi.
Q. 8. Who distinguish between self-regarding actions and other regarding actions.
Ans. J.S. Mill
Q. 9. Give the meaning of Liberty.
Ans. The term Liberty has been derived from the Latin word ‘Liber’ which means ‘absence of restraints’.It means liberty is the freedom to act without being subjected to any restraint. But in true sense, liberty does not mean so. Infact, liberty signifies, “a power or capacity of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying. It is not a license to do what a person can do, but it is a freedom to do anything with caution and responsibility.”
Q. 10. Discuss the positive concept of Liberty.
Ans. The positive view of liberty implies to two things :
1. It implies the right to participate in sovereign authority. It accepts the individual self-direction as final.
2. It implies freedom of rational self. The positive aspect of liberty includes the right of the men to do or enjoy something that is worth enjoying.
Q. 11. Define the term Liberty.
Ans. 1. According to Laski, “I mean by liberty the absence of restraints upon the existence of those social conditions which in modern civilisation are the necessary guarantees of individual happiness”. Laski further says, “By liberty is meant the eager maintenance of that atmosphere in which men have the opportunity to be their best selves.”
2. According to T.H. Green, “Freedom consists in a positive power or capacity of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying.”
Q. 12. Mention any four kinds of Liberty.
Ans. The four types of Liberty are :
(1) Natural Liberty, (2) Civil Liberty, (3) Political Liberty, and (4) Economic Liberty.
Q. 13. Mention the names of three great personalities who fought for their national freedom.
Ans. 1. Mahatma Gandhi of India fought against the British Government for freedom of India.
2. Nelson Mandela of South Africa who fought against racialism of the South African White government.
3. Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar fights for freedom against military rulers of her country.
Q. 14. Mention any two pre-conditions which are essential for individual freedom.
Ans. 1. Independence of Judiciary. There should be an independent, impartial and honest judiciary to safeguard individual freedom.
2. Rule of Law. Rule of law is very essential for individual freedom. Rule of law protects individual freedom.
Q. 15. Define Liberty. Mention any two kinds of Liberty.
Ans. Definition of Liberty.
1. According to Prof. Seeley, “Liberty is the opposite of over-government.”
2. According to Gettell, “Liberty is the positive power of doing and enjoying those things which are worthy of enjoyment and work.”
Kinds of Liberty
1. Civil Liberty. Civil liberty is the liberty which a man enjoys in a State or civil society and it consists of the rights and privileges which the state creates and protects for its subjects. It implies the right of each to do as he chooses within the limits set down by law.
2. Economic Liberty. Economic liberty means security of one’s daily bread and reasonable opportunity for earning it. Economic liberty consists in the individual’s right to work and to a minimum wage, the right to leisure by the regulation of hours of work infields, factories and mines.
Q. 16. Describe any two types of Liberty.
Ans. Social Liberty. Social liberty refers to the liberty enjoyed by a man in a society. Liberty can only be realised in society as freedom in isolation is meaningless. It consists of personal freedom, religious freedom, right to hold property, freedom to express ideas and freedom to make societies and associations,etc. Social liberty varies from state to state. People enjoy social liberty more in democratic states than that of dictatorships.
Economic Liberty. Economic liberty means security of one’s daily bread and reasonable opportunity for earning it. Economic liberty consists in the individual’s right to work and to a minimum wage, the right to leisure by the regulation of hours of work infields, factories and mines.
Q. 17. What do you mean by self-regarding and other regarding activities ?
Ans.J.S. Mill has divided the activities of individual into two types of activities:
1. Self-regarding activities.
2. Other-regarding activities.
1. Self-regarding Activities. According to Mill,“Self-regarding activities are those activities which concern with the individual and individual enjoys complete freedom. Others have no right to interfere in self-regarding activities of the individual.”
2. Other-regarding Activities. Other-regarding activities are those activities which affect others and in those activities individual is not completely free.
Q. 18. Explain the negative and positive aspects of Liberty.
Ans. Liberty is understood in two different ways — negative and positive aspects of liberty. The negative aspect of liberty means absolute freedom of individual. Absence of the restraints is the meaning of negative liberty. But true liberty does not mean the absence of restrictions. True liberty exists only when every citizen enjoys the opportunity for self-realisation and the state maintains those rights and opportunities Freedom which help the citizens to develop all that is best in them. The positive aspect of liberty includes the right of the man to do or enjoy something that is worth enjoying. In brief, it means the enjoyment of certain important rights such as freedom of life, freedom of thought and freedom of worship, etc.
Q. 19. Mention any two pre-conditions which are essential for an individual to enjoy Liberty.
Ans. Following two conditions are essential for an individual to enjoy liberty :
1. Independence of Judiciary. There should be independent, impartial and honest judiciary for safeguarding liberty. For the protection of rights and liberties of the individual and for equal justice between men and individuals and government, competent and independent judiciary is a great necessity.
2. Rule of Law. Rule of law is essential for an individual to enjoy liberty. Rule of law means the equality of all persons before law. Law makes no distinctions between the rich and the poor,the high and the low. The rule of law is the most vital principle that guarantees full liberties of the individual and prevents the executive from becoming high handed and unjust.
Q. 20. “Political liberty in the absence of Economic equality is meaningless.”Explain.
Ans. According to Laski, “Political liberty, in the absence of economic equality is held to be mere myth.”A multi-millionaire and a street beggar, in a formal sense, have the same political rights. But political rights are useless for a starving man. Right use of vote by a poor man is impossible. The poor man may sell his vote to a rich candidate. A poor man cannot afford to spend money on contesting an election.Moreover, political parties are controlled by the rich because the rich people finance the political parties.Press and platform are also under the control of the rich. Thus, in the absence of economic equality,political power tends to become the handmaid of economic power.