Short Questions with Answers- Freedom Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 11

Humanities/Arts : Short Questions with Answers- Freedom Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Short Questions with Answers- Freedom Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Political Science Class 11.
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Q. 1. Who wrote Hind Swaraj ?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi.

Q. 2. How many years Nelson Mandela spent in jail ?
Ans. 28 years in jail.

Q. 3. Mention any two kinds of Liberty.
Ans. 1. Civil liberty 2. Political liberty.

Q. 4. What is Economic Liberty ?
Ans. Economic liberty means security of one’s daily bread and reasonable opportunities for earning it.

Q. 5. Is liberty absolute ?
Ans. Liberty is not absolute.

Q. 6. What is negative liberty ?
Ans. Absence of all restrictions is the meaning of negative liberty.

Q. 7.    Who said that, “For me real freedom is freedom from fear and unless you can live free from fear you cannot live a dignified human life.”
Ans. Aung San Suu Kyi.

Q. 8. Who distinguish between self-regarding actions and other regarding actions.
Ans. J.S. Mill

Q. 9. Give the meaning of Liberty.
Ans. The term Liberty has been derived from the Latin  word  ‘Liber’  which  means  absence  of restraints’.It  means  liberty  is  the  freedom  to  act without being subjected to any restraint. But in true sense,  liberty  does  not  mean  so.  Infact,  liberty signifies,  “a  power  or  capacity  of  doing or  enjoying something worth doing or enjoying. It is not a license to do what a person can do, but it is a freedom to do anything with caution and responsibility.”

Q. 10. Discuss the positive concept of Liberty.
Ans. The  positive  view  of  liberty  implies  to  two things :
1. It implies the right to participate in sovereign authority.  It  accepts  the  individual  self-direction  as final.
2. It implies freedom of rational self. The positive aspect of liberty includes the right of the men to do or enjoy something that is worth enjoying.

Q. 11. Define the term Liberty.
Ans. 1.  According to Laski, “I mean by liberty the absence of restraints upon the existence of those social conditions  which  in  modern  civilisation  are  the necessary  guarantees  of  individual  happiness”.  Laski further  says,  “By  liberty  is  meant  the  eager maintenance  of  that  atmosphere  in  which  men  have the opportunity to be their best selves.”
2. According to T.H. Green, “Freedom consists in a  positive  power  or  capacity  of  doing  or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying.”

Q. 12. Mention any four kinds of Liberty.
Ans. The four types of Liberty are :
(1) Natural Liberty, (2) Civil Liberty, (3) Political Liberty, and (4) Economic Liberty.

Q.  13.  Mention  the  names  of  three  great personalities  who  fought  for  their national freedom.
Ans. 1. Mahatma Gandhi of India fought against the British Government for freedom of India.
2.  Nelson  Mandela  of  South  Africa  who  fought against  racialism  of  the  South  African  White government.
3.  Aung  San  Suu  Kyi  of  Myanmar  fights  for freedom against military rulers of her country.

Q. 14. Mention any two pre-conditions which are essential for individual freedom.
Ans.  1.  Independence  of  Judiciary.  There should  be  an  independent,  impartial  and  honest judiciary to safeguard individual freedom.
2. Rule of Law. Rule of law is very essential for individual  freedom.  Rule  of  law  protects  individual freedom.

Q.  15.  Define  Liberty.  Mention  any two kinds of Liberty.
Ans. Definition  of  Liberty.  
1.  According  to Prof.  Seeley,  “Liberty  is  the  opposite  of  over-government.”
2.  According  to  Gettell, “Liberty  is  the  positive power  of  doing  and  enjoying  those  things  which  are worthy of enjoyment and work.”
Kinds of Liberty
1. Civil Liberty. Civil liberty is the liberty which a man enjoys in a State or civil society and it consists of the rights and privileges which the state creates and protects for its subjects. It implies the right of each to do as he chooses within the limits set down by law.
2.  Economic  Liberty.  Economic  liberty  means security of one’s daily bread and reasonable opportunity  for  earning  it.  Economic  liberty  consists  in  the individual’s right to work and to a minimum wage, the right  to  leisure  by  the  regulation  of  hours  of  work  infields, factories and mines.

Q. 16. Describe any two types of Liberty.
Ans. Social Liberty. Social liberty refers to the liberty enjoyed by a man in a society. Liberty can only be  realised  in  society  as  freedom  in  isolation  is meaningless. It consists of personal freedom, religious freedom,  right  to  hold  property,  freedom  to  express ideas and freedom to make societies and associations,etc.  Social  liberty  varies  from  state  to  state.  People enjoy social liberty more in democratic states than that of dictatorships.
 Economic  Liberty.  Economic  liberty  means security of one’s daily bread and reasonable opportunity for  earning  it.  Economic  liberty  consists  in  the individual’s right to work and to a minimum wage, the right  to  leisure  by  the  regulation  of  hours  of  work  infields, factories and mines.

Q. 17. What do you mean by self-regarding and other regarding activities ?
Ans.J.S.  Mill  has  divided  the  activities  of individual into two types of activities:
1. Self-regarding activities.
2. Other-regarding activities.
1. Self-regarding Activities. According to Mill,“Self-regarding  activities  are  those  activities    which concern  with  the  individual  and  individual  enjoys complete freedom. Others have no right to interfere in self-regarding activities of the individual.”
2. Other-regarding Activities. Other-regarding activities are those activities which affect others and in those activities individual is not completely free.

Q.  18.  Explain  the  negative  and  positive aspects of Liberty.
Ans. Liberty  is  understood  in  two  different ways — negative and positive aspects of liberty. The negative  aspect  of  liberty  means  absolute  freedom  of individual. Absence of the restraints is the meaning of negative  liberty.  But  true  liberty  does  not  mean  the absence of restrictions. True liberty exists only when every citizen enjoys the opportunity for self-realisation and the state maintains those rights and opportunities Freedom which  help  the  citizens  to  develop  all  that  is  best  in them. The positive aspect of liberty includes the right of  the  man  to  do  or  enjoy  something  that  is  worth enjoying.  In  brief,  it  means  the  enjoyment  of  certain important  rights  such  as  freedom  of  life,  freedom  of thought and freedom of worship, etc.

Q. 19. Mention any two pre-conditions which are essential  for  an  individual  to  enjoy Liberty.
Ans. Following  two  conditions  are  essential  for an individual to enjoy liberty :
1. Independence of Judiciary. There should be independent,  impartial  and  honest  judiciary  for safeguarding  liberty.  For  the  protection  of  rights  and liberties of the individual and for equal justice between men and individuals and government, competent  and independent judiciary is a great necessity.
2. Rule of Law. Rule of law is essential for an individual  to  enjoy  liberty.  Rule  of  law means  the  equality  of  all  persons  before  law.  Law makes no distinctions between the rich and the poor,the high and the low. The rule of law is the most vital principle  that  guarantees  full  liberties  of  the individual and prevents the executive from becoming high handed and unjust.

Q. 20. “Political liberty in the absence of Economic equality is meaningless.”Explain.
Ans. According to Laski, “Political liberty, in the absence of economic equality is held to be mere myth.”A multi-millionaire and a street beggar, in a formal sense,  have  the  same  political  rights.  But  political rights  are  useless  for  a  starving  man.  Right  use  of vote by a poor man is impossible. The poor man may sell his vote to a rich candidate. A poor man cannot afford  to  spend  money  on  contesting  an  election.Moreover, political parties are controlled by the rich because the rich people finance the political parties.Press and platform are also under the control of the rich.  Thus,  in  the  absence  of  economic  equality,political  power  tends  to  become  the  handmaid  of economic  power. 

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