Q. 1. Define the term ‘Net Area Sown’.
Ans. The physical extent of land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as Net Sown Area.
Q. 2. Define ‘Current Fallow Land’.
What is Fallow Land?
Ans. The land which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year is known as current fallow land.
Q. 3. Who is responsible for measuring the geographical area of administrative units in India?
Ans. The Survey of India is responsible for measuring the geographical area of administrative units in India.
Q. 4. What is the difference between the reporting area and the geographical area?
Ans. The difference between the reporting area and the geographical area is that changes in reporting area is depending on the estimates of land revenue records, whereas the geographical area does not change and stays fixed as per Survey of India measurements.
Q. 5. What is the difference between private land and common property resources?
Ans. The private land is owned by an individual or a group of individuals, while the CPRs, are owned by the state meant for the use of the community.
Q. 6. What has resulted in the increase of net area sown?
Ans. The use of culturable waste land for agricultural purpose has resulted in the increase of net area sown.
Q. 7. How is agricultural density of population different from physiological density of population?
Ans. The agricultural density of population is the number of farmers per area of farmland. Physiological density is the number of people per unit area of arable land.
Q. 8. How much part of total geographical area is cultivated?
Ans. 43 %.
Q. 9. How do you measure total cultivable land?
Ans. Total cultivable land is measured by adding up net sown area, all fallow land and cultivable wasteland.
Q. 10. Explain any three features of ‘dryland farming’ in India.
Ans. Features of dryland farming are :
(i) Dryland farming is largely confined to the regions having uncertain, ill distributed and limited annual rainfall.
(ii) Occurrence of extensive climatic hazards like drought, flood, etc.
(iii) Undulating soil surface.
(iv) Occurrence of extensive and large holdings. Example: Ragi, Bajra, Moong, Gram, etc.
Q. 11. Describe any three characteristics of ‘wetland farming’ in India.
Ans. The characteristics of wetland farming in India :
(i) The rainfall is excessive of soil moisture requirement.
(ii) These regions often face flood or soil erosion hazards.
(iii) Water intensive crops are grown like paddy, jute, etc.
Q. 12. Give the meaning of “Net Sown Area.’ Explain any two points of difference between ‘Current Fallow’ and ‘Cultivable wasteland’.
Ans. The physical extent of land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as net sown area. It represents the total area sown with crops. Area sown with crops more than once in the same year is counted only once. Difference :
(i) Current fallow is the land which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year. Whereas, cultivable wasteland is the land which is left fallow (uncultivable) for more than five years .
(ii) Current fallow land recoups the lost fertility through natural processes. Cultivable wasteland can be brought under cultivation after improving it through reclamation practices.
Q. 13. Differentiate between dryland farming and wetland farming.
What is the difference between dryland and wetland farming.
Ans. (i) In India, the dryland farming is largely confined to the regions having annual rainfall less than 75 cm. The wetland farming is confined to areas where the rainfall is in excess of soil moisture requirement of plants during rainy season.
(ii) The areas of dryland farming grow hardy and drought resistant crops such as ragi, bajra, moong, gram and guar (fodder crops). The areas of wetland farming may face flood and soil erosion hazards. These areas grow various water intensive crops such as rice, jute and sugarcane.
(iii) The areas of dryland farming practise various measures of soil moisture conservation and rain water harvesting. The areas of wetland farming practise aquaculture in the fresh water bodies.
Q. 14. Differentiate between barren and wasteland and culturable wasteland.
Ans. Barren land : The land which cannot be used for cultivation is called barren land such as hilly terrains, deserts and ravines, etc.
Wasteland : The land which is left fallow (uncultivated) for more than five years is included in this category. It can be brought under cultivation after improving its fertility.
Culturable wasteland : Culturabale wasteland is arable land that is not taken up for cultivation or any other use.
Q. 15. What factor has direct bearing on the productivity of agriculture?
Ans. The quality of land has a direct bearing on the productivity of agriculture.
Q. 16. How can an estimate of the total stock of agricultural land resources be taken?
Ans. An estimation of the total stock of agricultural land resources (i.e., total cultivable land can be arrived at by adding up net sown area, all fallow lands and culturable wasteland.
Q. 17. How can the cropping intensity be calculated?
Ans. The cropping intensity (CI) is calculated as follows:
Cropping Intensity in percentage GCA/NSA × 100.
Q. 18. Name the three cropping seasons of northern India.
Ans. The three cropping seasons of northern India are Kharif, Rabi and Zaid.
Q. 19. What do you know about zaid cropping season?
Ans. Zaid is a short duration summer cropping season beginning after harvesting of rabi crops. The cultivation of watermelons, cucumbers, vegetables and fodder crops during this season is done on irrigated lands.
Q. 20. Where is dryland farming practiced?
Ans. The dryland farming is largely confined to the regions having annual rainfall of less than 75 cm.
Q. 21. Rainfed farming can be classified into how many types of farming?
Ans. Rainfed farming can be classified into two types of farming :
(i) Dryland farming
(ii) Wetland farming.
Q. 22. How can the total stock of the agricultural land resources be taken?
Ans. The total stock can be taken by adding up the net sown area, all fallow lands and culturable wastelands.
Q. 23. What percentage of rice is produced in India?
Ans. India contributes 22 per cent of rice production in the world.
Q. 24. Which state has the highest intensity of crops?
Ans. Punjab, 18.9%.
Q. 25. Why is land ownership important in rural areas?
Ans. Land ownership is important in rural areas :
(i) It has a social value.
(ii) Serves as security for credit, natural hazards or life contingencies.
(iii) It also adds to social status.
Q. 26. What are the objectives of protective farming are:
Ans. The objectives of protective farming are :
(i) To protect the crops from adverse effects of soil moisture deficiency which often means that irrigation acts as a supplementary source of water over and above the rainfall.
(ii) The strategy of this kind of irrigation is to provide soil moisture to maximum possible area.
(iii) It is meant to provide sufficient soil moisture in the cropping season to achieve high productivity.
Q. 27. Name the category which is witnessing the highest increasing trend in land use. Discuss the reasons for its increasing trend.
Ans. Highest increasing trend in land use : Area under non-agricultural uses 80% Reasons:
(i) Changing structure of the Indian economy.
(ii) Expansion of industrial and service sector.
(iii) Expansion of related infrastructural facilities.
(iv) Expansion of area under urban and rural settlements.
(v) It is expanding at the expense of wastelands and agricultural lands.
Q. 28. Foodgrains can be classified into how many categories?
Ans. Foodgrains can be classified into two categories: cereals and pulses.
Q. 29. What is India’s rank in the production of cereals?
Ans. India ranks third in the production of cereals.
Q. 30. Name any two cotton growing areas in India.
Ans. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharasthra.
Q. 31. What is India’s rank in the production of sugarcane worldwide?
Ans. India ranks second in the production of sugarcane.
Q. 32. What is India’s rank among the tea exporting countries in the world?
Ans. India ranks third after Sri Lanka and China.
Q. 33. What percentage of the world’s coffee is produced in India?
Ans. India produces only 3.7 percent of the world’s coffee.
Q. 34. Maharashtra has emerged as the leading sugar producer in India. Give two reasons
Ans. Maharashtra has emerged as the leading sugar producer in India because :
(i) Tropical climate and long crushing season.
(ii) Large scale sugarcane cultivation.
Q. 35. What type of climate is required for the sugarcane to grow?
Ans. Sugarcane is cultivated in sub-humid and humid climates of tropical areas.
Q. 36. Which state is the leading producer of rice?
Ans. West Bengal.
Q. 37. What do you know about the cereal production in India?
Ans. (i) The cereals occupy about 54 per cent of total cropped area in India.
(ii) The country produces about 11 per cent cereals of the world and ranks third in production after China and USA.
(iii) India produces a variety of cereals, which are classified as fine grains (rice, wheat) and coarse grains (jowar, bajra, maize, ragi), etc.
Q. 38. What type of climate is required for the production of bajra?
Ans. (i) Bajra is sown in hot and dry climatic conditions in north-western and western parts of the country.
(ii) It is a hardy crop which resists frequent dry spells and drought in the region.
(iii) It is cultivated alone as well as part of mixed cropping. This coarse cereal occupies about 5.2 per cent of total cropped area in the country.
Q. 39. Write a short note on the cultivation of sugarcane.
Ans. (i) Sugarcane is a crop of tropical areas.
(ii) Under rainfed conditions, it is cultivated in subhumid and humid climates. But it is largely an irrigated crop in India.
(iii) In Indo-Gangetic plain, its cultivation is largely concentrated in Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane growing area in western India is spread over Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(iv) Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh are other leading producers of this crop where yield level of sugarcane is high. Its yield is low in northern India. (Any three)
Q. 40. Why are sugar mills located within the cane producing regions? Explain any three reasons.
Why are sugar mills located within the sugarcane producing regions in India? Explain any three reasons with examples.
Ans. The sugar mills are located within the sugarcane producing regions because :
(i) Sugarcane is the raw material used in sugar mills. Sugarcane is a bulky material and sugar is only 10 per cent of the weight of sugarcane.
(ii) Sucrose content of sugarcane begins to dry immediately after it is harvested from field. And thus, it should be transported to the mill as quickly as possible for better recovery.
(iii) A short crushing season of sugar creates financial problems for the industry as a whole. To increase the crushing season, one can sow and harvest sugarcane at proper intervals in different areas adjoining the sugar mill. This will increase the duration of supply of sugarcane to sugar mills.
Q. 41. How much percentage of land in India is devoted to crop cultivation?
Ans. 57 per cent.
Q. 42. Name the two departments that were established to overcome the foodgrain production problem.
Ans. To overcome the problem, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) and Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) were launched.
Q. 43. What is Green Revolution?
Ans. The great increase in production of foodgrains due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties, to the use of pesticides, and to better management techniques is known as the Green Revolution.
Q. 44. How did the Green Revolution prove to be a hit?
Ans. This strategy of agricultural development made the country self-reliant in foodgrain production. India introduced package technology comprising HYVs, along with chemical fertilizers in irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.
Q. 45. Why has the use of pesticides increased since 1960s?
Ans. Since, the high yielding varieties are highly susceptible to pests and diseases, the use of pesticides has increased significantly since 1960s.
Q. 46. Examine the three strategies of development adopted by the government to increase foodgrains production just after independence.
Ans. During Partition about one-third of the irrigated land in undivided India went to Pakistan. This reduced the proportion of irrigated area in Independent India. After Independence, the immediate goal of the Government was to increase foodgrains production by :
(i) Switching over from cash crops to food crops.
(ii) Intensification of cropping over already cultivated land.
(iii) Increasing cultivated area by bringing cultivable and fallow land under plough.
Q. 47. Describe the three main achievements of the Green Revolution in India?
Ans. (i) The Green Revolution paid dividends instantly and increased the foodgrains production at a very fast rate.
(ii) This also gave fillip to the development of a large number of agro-inputs, agro-processing industries and small-scale industries.
(iii) This strategy of agricultural development made the country self-reliant in foodgrain production.
Q. 48. Why is the strategy of increasing cropping intensity important in a country like India?
Ans. The intensity of cropping is important in a country like India for following reasons:
(i) To increase the production of foodgrains for the increasing population.
(ii) To meet out the demand of raw material for the agro-based industries.
(iii) A high cropping intensity is desirable not only for fuller utilisation of land resources but also for reducing unemployment in the rural economy.
Q. 49. ‘The proportion of workers in the agricultural sector in India has shown a declining trend over the last few decades.’ What does this trend indicate?
Ans. This trend indicates a shift of dependence of workers from farm-based occupation to non-farm based one. It shows a sectoral shift in the economy of the country.
Q. 50. How much per cent of cultivated land is under irrigation?
Ans. 33 per cent .
Q. 51. Why is labour productivity in Indian agriculture very low as compared to other countries?
Ans. The labour productivity in Indian agriculture is very low due to high pressure on the land resources.
Q. 52. What forces the farmer to fall in trap of indebtedness?
Ans. Crop failures and low returns from agriculture force the farmer to fall in trap of indebtedness.
Q. 53. Why is the average size of agricultural land holding shrinking?
Ans. The average size of agricultural land holding is shrinking because of the population pressure.
Q. 54. “Degradation of cultivable land is one of the most serious problems that arise out of faulty strategy of irrigation and agricultural development in India.” Support the statement with three points.
Ans. Faulty strategy of irrigation and agricultural development has resulted in depletion of soil fertility in the following ways :
(i) Areas where canals are unlined, water seeps into the soil and results in waterlogging. This decreases the capacity of soil to absorb water in absence of proper drainage, ruins the standing crops.
(ii) Alkalinity and salinity have already affected large areas of cultivable land in India. Excessive use of chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides has led to the concentration of toxic amounts in the soil profile which has reduced soil fertility substantially.
(iii) Leguminous crops have been displaced from the cropping pattern in the irrigated areas and duration of fallow has substantially reduced owing to multiple cropping. This has obliterated the process of natural fertilization such as nitrogen fixation. Rainfed areas in humid and semi-arid tropics also experienced degradation of several types like soil erosion by water and wind erosion which are often induced by human activities.
Q. 55. Explain how the ‘small size of the farm’ and ‘fragmentation of the holdings’ are the two major problems of Indian agriculture.
Ans. The small size of the farm and fragmentation of the holdings are the two major problems as the of India agriculture. The are a large number of marginal and small farmers in India. More than 60 per cent of the ownership holdings have a size smaller than 1 hectare. About 40 per cent of the farmers have operational holding size smaller than 0.5 hectare. The average size of land holding is shrinking further under increasing population pressure.
In India, the land holdings are mostly fragmented. There are some states where consolidation of holding has not been carried out even once. Even the states where it has been carried out once, second consolidation is required as land holdings have fragmented again in the process of division of land among the owners of next generations. The small size fragmented land holdings are uneconomic.