Q. 1. Define the term ‘manufacturing industries.’
Ans. The term ‘manufacturing industries’ refers to those industries which are involved in converting raw materials, components or parts into finished goods that meet a customer’s expectations.
Q. 2. Explain the term ‘public sector enterprise.’
Ans. Public sector enterprises are government/state controlled companies or corporations funded by governments. Industries of strategic and national importance are usually in the public sector.
Q. 3. ‘Why is the large integrated steel industry located close to the source of raw material?’
Ans. The large integrated steel plants use bulky and weight-losing raw material (ores). Hence, they are located close to the sources of raw material to reduce transport cost.
Q. 4. Name any two factors that influence the location of industries.
Ans. Location of industries is influenced by several factors like access to raw materials, power, market, capital, transport and labour, etc.
Q. 5. What types of industries are located near places where raw material is easily available?
Ans. Industries using weight-losing raw materials are located in the regions where raw materials are located.
Q. 6. Why are heavy machine, machine tools and heavy chemical industries located near the market?
Ans. Markets provide the outlets for manufactured products. Hence, heavy machine, machine tools, heavy chemicals industries are located near the high demand areas as these are market oriented.
Q. 7. Which town was developed as centre of modern industries after 1850?
Q. 8. Manufacturing is an activity considered under which type of economic activity?
Ans. Secondary activity.
Q. 9. Explain the role of ‘market’ and ‘transport’ in the location of industries in India.
Ans. The demand of market comes mostly from agriculture, industry and trade. The predominant form of industrial organisation developed market becomes a necessary infrastructure for fast industrialization and hence it is important for the economy because India is a land of agriculture where more than 70% of population depends on agriculture and as India is also a developing country so, industrialisation is more necessary.
Development of any industry is very much dependent on good means of transport. All the production is meant for consumption from fields and factories. The product is brought from different places to market from consumers by various means of transportation. In India, industries are linked with roads, railways and other means of transportation but as agriculture sector is concerned, it is not well-linked with the roads. Despite of numerous efforts, villages of India which are considered as main source of agricultural products still need to be linked with various means of transportation.
Q. 10. What are the types of industries in india on the basis of their ownership?
Ans. On the basis of ownership, industries are categorised as :
(i) Public sector,
(ii) Private sector, and
(iii) Joint and cooperative sector.
Q. 11. How can the industries be categorised based on he nature of the manufactured products?
Ans. On the basis of nature of manufactured products the industries can be classified in eight classes. These are :
(i) Metallurgical Industries.
(ii) Mechanical Engineering Industries.
(iii) Chemical and Allied Industries
(iv) Textile Industries
(v) Food Processing Industries
(vi) Electricity Generation
(viii) Communication Industries.
Q. 12. How can the industries be classified on the basis of raw material?
Ans. The classification of industries on the basis of raw materials used by them can be as follows :
(i) Agriculture-based industries,
(ii) Forest-based industries,
(iii) Mineral-based industries, and
(iv) Industrially processed raw material based industries.
Q.13. Name the two sectors of the cottage textile industries. How are they different?
Ans. Cotton (cottage) textile industry in India can be divided into two sectors :
(i) The organised sector
(ii) The decentralised secto The decentralised sector includes cloth produced n handlooms (including Khadi) and powerlooms. The production of the organised sector has drastically fallen from 81 per cent in the midtwentieth century to only about 6 per cent in 2000. At present, the powerlooms on the decentralised sector produce more than 59 per cent and the handloom sector produces about 19 per cent of all the cotton cloth produced in the country.
Q. 14. Differentiate between small scale manufacturing and large scale manufacturing.
Ans. Points of distinction between small scale manufacturing and large scale manufacturing :
(i) Small scale industries use local raw materials, whereas large scale industries use variety of raw materials brought from far and near
(ii) Small scale industries use simple power driven machines, whereas large scale industries use advanced technology and work on assembly line production.
(iii) Small scale industries use skilled and semi-skilled labour, whereas large scale industries use skilled labour.
(iv) Small scale industries provide large scale employment and raise local purchasing power, whereas large scale industries provide employment with mass production and huge capital.
(v) Any other relevant point. Any three points of distinction to be mentioned.
Q. 15. Classify the Indian cotton textile industry into two sectors.
Ans. The two sectors of Indian cotton textile industry :
(i) Organised Sector
(ii) Unorganised Sector
Q.16. Why are most of the iron and steel industries located near the raw material sources?
Ans. Iron and steel industries are located near the raw material source because it uses iron ore and coal which are weight-losing raw materials.
Q. 17. Why is iron and steel industry considered as important?
Ans. Iron and steel industry is considered as important as almost all sectors of Indian industry depend heavily on the iron and steel industry for their basic infrastructure.
Q.18. Name the two rivers which provide water to TISCO.
Ans. The Rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai provide water to the plant.
Q. 19. The iron ore for Bhilai Steel Plant comes from which mine?
Ans. The iron ore comes from Dalli-Rajhara mines.
Q. 20. What do you know about the location of Durgapur Steel Plant?
Ans. The Durgapur Steel Plant lies in Raniganj and Jharia coal belt .
Q. 21. Which steel plant was set up 1964 with Russian collaboration?
Ans. The Bokaro Steel Plant.
Q. 22. Name the three steel plants which were set up as part of the Fourth Plan Period
Ans. The Vizag Steel Plant in Vishakhapatnam, the Vijaynagar Steel Plant in Karnataka and the Salem Steel Plant in Tamil Nadu.
Q. 23. When and where was the first modern cotton mill established?
Ans. The first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
Q. 24. Why was Mumbai considered as the cotton textile manufacturing centre?
Ans. Mumbai was considered as the cotton textile manufacturing centre it was very close to the cotton producing areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
Q. 25. Name the major cotton producing states in India.
Ans. The major cotton producing states in India are Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
Q. 26. Define the term ‘petrochemical industries.’
Ans. Many items are derived from crude petroleum, which provide raw materials for many new industries, these are collectively known as petrochemical industries.
Q. 27. Jute mills are mostly located in which state of India?
Ans. West Bengal.
Q. 28. When was the first modern cotton mill set up?
Ans. In 1854 in Mumbai.
Q. 29. Mention any two factors responsible for the establishment of cotton textile mills in Mumbai.
Ans. Factors responsible for establishment of cotton textile mills in Mumbai:
(i) Close proximity to the cotton producing areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
(ii) Humid climate
(iii) It was the financial centre and had the capital needed to start an industry.
(iv) Transport facilities
(v) Cheap and abundant labour
(vi) Port facilities at Mumbai
(vii) Availability of hydroelectricity.
Q. 30. Explain the three major factors responsible for establishment of Tata Iron & Steel Industry in Jamshedpur.
Ans. Major factors responsible for establishment of Tata Iron & Steel industry in Jamshedpur :
(i) It lies very close to the Mumbai – Kolkata railway line.
(ii) Kolkata is the nearest port for the export of steel about 240 km away.
(iii) The rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai provide water to the plant.
(iv) Iron ore is obtained from Noamundi and Badam Pahar.
(v) Coal is brought from Joda mines in Odisha.
(vi) Coking Coal comes from Jharia and West Bokaro
Detailed Answer :
The major factors that led to the establishment of Tata Iron & Steel Industry in Jamshedpur are:
The areas surrounding Jamshedpur are rich in minerals, including iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite and limestone. It is situated in the southern end of the state of Jharkhand and is bordered by the states of Odisha and West Bengal which are quite rich in minerals. The labour is easily available as people belonging to neighbouring states come here in search of employment.
It is an important railway junction of the South Eastern Railway and is connected directly to all the major cities of the country. The presence of two important rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai make it easy for the industry to meet its water requirement as well as transport requirement.
Q. 31. Explain any three major factors responsible for the development of ‘Bhilai Steel Plant.’
Ans. Major factors responsible for the development of Bhilai Steel Plant :
(i) Proximity to raw material.
(ii) Coal comes from Korba and Kargali.
(iii) Water comes from Tandula Dam.
(iv) Power is supplied from Korba Thermal Power Station.
(v) It lies on the Kolkata-Mumbai railway route .
(vi) Bulk of steel produced is fed to Hindustan Shipyard at Vishakhapatnam.
(i) Proximity to raw material : The raw material used in steel plant is also bulky. In order to cut down the time and cost of transporting the heavy raw material to the plant, the Bhilai Steel Plant is located close to base from where the raw material is derived.
(ii) Coal comes from Korba and Kargali : The Bhilai Steel Plant has advantage of getting coal extracted from Korba and Kargali.
(iii) It lies on the Kolkata-Mumbai railway route : The advantageous location of the railway line in Bhilai which connects Kolkata as well as Mumbai plays an important role in the establishment of steel plant.
Q. 32. Explain the significance of iron and steel industry of India by giving three points.
Why do you think that the iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country.
Ans. The significance of iron and steel industry of India:
(i) Iron and steel industry provides raw material for other industries.
(ii) Agricultural implements are made of iron and steel.
(iii) Industrial machinery.
(iv) Railway rolling stock.
(v) The iron and steel industry is basic to the industrial development of any country.
Q. 33. Explain why the iron and steel industry is located near the source of raw materials in India.
Ans. The raw materials required for iron and steel industry are: iron ore and coking coal, limestone, dolomite, manganese and fire clay. All these raw materials are gross (weight-losing), therefore, the best location for the iron and steel plants is near the source of raw materials.
Q. 34. Describe the causes of Development of cotton textile industries in India.
Ans. The development of this industry in India was due to several factors:
(i) It is a tropical country and cotton is the most comfortable fabric for a hot and humid climate.
(ii) Second, large quantity of cotton was grown in India.
(iii) Abundant skilled labour required for this industry was available in this country. In fact, in some areas the people were producing cotton textiles for generations and transferred the skill from one generation to the other and in the process perfected their skills.
Q. 35. Why is the sugar industry a seasonal industry?
Ans. Sugar industry is a seasonal one because of:
(i) The seasonality of raw material.
(ii) Sugarcane can be harvested only in a particular season.
(iii) Sugar mills are operative for a part of the year only during the crushing season.
Q. 36. Why are sugar mills located within the cane producing region? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. The sugar mills are located within the sugarcane producing regions because:
(i) Sugarcane is the raw material used in sugar mills. Sugarcane is a bulky material and sugar is only 10 per cent of weight of sugarcane.
(ii) Sucrose content of sugarcane begins to dry immediately after it is harvested from field. And thus, it should be transported to the mill as quickly as possible for better recovery.
(iii) A short crushing season of sugar creates financial problems for the industry as a whole. To increase the crushing season, one can sow and harvest sugarcane at proper intervals in different areas adjoining the sugar mill. This will increase the duration of supply of sugarcane to sugar mills.
Q.37. What is the raw material base for the petrochemical industry? Name some of the products of this industry.
Ans. The raw material base for the petrochemical industry is the crude petroleum. The products are :
(ii) Synthetic fibres
(iv) Surfactant intermediate
Q. 38. What is the major impact of Information Technology (IT) revolution in India?
Ans. Information technology (IT) has had a profound influence on the Indian economy such as:
(i) Information technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation.
(ii) The IT and IT-enabled business process outsourcing (ITESBPO) services continue to be on a robust growth path. Indian software industry has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the economy.
(iii) The software industry has surpassed electronic hardware production. The Indian government has created a number of software parks in the country.
Q.39. Explain any three major objectives of the ‘New Industrial Policy’ of India, which was announced in 1991.
Ans. The major objectives of the New Industrial Policy of India are:
(i) To accelerate economic growth and boost the process of industrialisation as a means to achieving a socialistic pattern of society.
(ii) It provides a closer interaction between agricultural and industrial sectors.
(iii) The government would promote the development of a system of linkages between nucleus large plants and the satellite ancillaries. To boost the development of small scale industries, the investment limit in the case of tiny units was enhanced to 20 lakhs and of ancillaries to 25 lakh.
Q. 40. Analyse any three locational factors which helped in the development of ‘Hugli Industrial Region.’
Ans. (i) Development of river ports in Hugli River.
(ii) Mega city ocated nearby Hugli River is Kolkata that is well-connected with other sources of transportation.
(iii) Availability of cheap labour from West Bengal & Bihar region.
Q.41. Explain any three locational factors which helped in the development of Gujarat Industrial Region.
Ans. Locational factors which helped in the development of Gujarat Industrial Region are:(i) Gujarat is basically known for cotton industries. Raw material for this industry is easily available here.
(ii) Market for industries are available in nearby cities like- Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, etc.
(iii) The discovery of oil fields led to the establishment of petrochemical industries around Ankleshwar, Jamnagar and Vadodara.
(iv) Anand has developed as biggest dairy products producing city in India.