Q. 1. Define the term “Mineral Resources.”
Ans. Mineral Resources can be defined as homogenous,naturally occurring, inorganic materials that are of economic interest in or on the crust of the Earth.
Q. 2. Define metallic minerals.
Ans. Metallic minerals are the minerals which can be melted to obtain new products.
Q. 3. Define non- metallic minerals.
Ans. Non-metallic minerals are minerals that have no metallic lustre and break easily. They are inorganic in origin and are derived from the buried animal and plant life.
Q. 4. Define ferrous minerals.
Ans. Ferrous minerals are minerals which contain iron. They have very small amount of other metals added.
Q. 5. Define non-ferrous minerals.
Ans. Non-ferrous minerals are those which do not contain iron.
Q. 6. Give any two examples of mining towns in India.
Ans. (i) Jharia (ii) Digboi.
Q. 7. Name any two ferrous minerals other than iron ore.
Ans. Manganese and Chromium.
Q. 8. Minerals can be divided into how many categories?
Ans. Classification of minerals :
Q. 9. Classify metallic minerals into two categories.
Ans. Ferrous and non-ferrous.
Q. 10. Explain any three main characteristics of mineral resources of India.
Ans. (i) India has a large number of economically useful minerals but unevenly distributed over space and they constitute one-quarter of the world’s known mineral resources.
(ii) About two-thirds of its iron deposits lies in the belt along Odisha and Bihar and Raniganj in West Bengal. Lignite coal is found in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.
(iii) They are essential naturally occurring materials and are unevenly distributed in India.
Q. 11. Name the three agencies that are involved in the exploration of minerals in India.
Ans. In India, systematic surveying, prospecting and exploration for minerals is undertaken by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) , Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Mineral Exploration Corporation LTD (MECL), Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM), Bharat Gold Mines Ltd (BGML), Hindustan Copper Ltd (HCL).
Q. 12. Explain three reasons for the import of petroleum and its products in large quantities in India.
Ans. Reasons for the import of petroleum and its products in large quantities in India are as follows :
(i) Production of petroleum and its products is less than required in India.
(ii) It is used as a fuel.
(iii) It is also used as an industrial raw material.
(iv) Demand increased due to rise in population and number of vehicles on the roads. (Any three)
Q.13. Give two advantages of copper. Mention four main copper mining areas in India.
Ans. (i) Copper and copper alloy are some of the most versatile materials available and are used for applications in almost every type of industry.
(ii) Besides good conductivity the properties include strength, hardness, ductility and resistance to corrosion, wear and shock, low magnetic permeability, an attractive range of colours together with ease of machining, forming, polishing and plating.
Copper mining areas in India are :
Q. 14. Give two advantages of manganese. Mention any four main manganese producing states in India.
Ans. Two advantages of manganese are :
(i) It is considered an essential nutrient, because the body requires it to function properly. People use manganese as medicine.
(ii) During the period of operation of the Merioneth manganese mines, the main applications were bleach manufacturing, glass making and steel making.
(iii) Manganese is used as a flux in smelting silver and lead ores. Manganese producing states in India are: Odisha, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, etc.
Q. 15. Give two advantages of iron-ore for India. Mention any four iron ore producing states in India.
Ans. Two advantages of iron ore for India are :
(i) India is bestowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore.
(ii) It has the largest reserve of iron-ore in Asia. It has great demand in international market due to its superior quality. About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron ore is located in the States of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. (Any four)
Q. 16. Give an account of the distribution of mica in India.
Ans. India has monopoly in production of mica producing about 60% of the world’s total production. About 95% of India’s mica is found in just three states of Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
(i) Jharkhand : Jharkhand has the richest belt and accounts for 60% of India’s production in terms of value. Mica is found in a belt extending about 150 km in length and 22 km in width from Gaya to Hazaribagh and Kodarma. Kodarma is a wellknown place for mica production in Jharkhand.
(ii) Andhra Pradesh : This is the second largest producer and accounts for 25% of India’s mica. The areas are in Nellore district. It is 97 km long and 30 km wide.
(iii) Rajasthan : The mica belt extends from Jaipur to Udaipur. This is 320 km long with an average width of 96 km. The major mica producers are Bhilwara, Jaipur, Tonk, Sikar, Dungarpur and Ajmer.
Q. 17. Describe the broad belts of minerals in India.
Mention the three major mineral belts in India.Write the main feature of each.
Ans. Minerals are generally concentrated in three broad belts in India:
(i) The North-Eastern Plateau Region : This belt covers Chotanagpur (Jharkhand), Odisha Plateau, West Bengal and some parts of Chhattisgarh.
(ii) The South-Western Plateau Region : Karnataka, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala comes under this region. This belt is rich in ferrous metals, bauxite also contains high grade iron-ore, manganese and limestone.
(iii) The North-Western region : This belt exists in Aravalli (Rajasthan) and some parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan is rich in building stones, sand stone, granite, marble and gypsum. Dolomite and limestone provide raw materials for cement industry. Gujarat is known for its petroleum deposits.
Q. 18. Describe the uneven distribution of minerals and energy resources in India by giving suitable examples.
Ans. (i) Most of the metallic minerals in India occur in the peninsular plateau region in the old crystalline rocks.
(ii) 97% of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari.
(iii) Petroleum reserves are located in the sedimentary basin of Assam, Gujarat and Mumbai High.
(iv) Most of the major mineral resources occur to the east of a line making Mangalore and Kanpur.
(v) Minerals are generally concentrated in three broad belts, viz., the North-Eastern Plateau Region, the South-Western Plateau Region, The North- Western Region.(Any three points to be described).
Q. 19. Examine the significance of bio-energy to humankind in India.
Ans. The significance of bio-energy to humankind in India :
(i) Bio-energy is a potential source of energy conservation.
(ii) It can be converted into electrical energy, heat energy or gas for cooking.
(iii) It will also process the waste and garbage and produce energy.
(iv) This will improve economic life of rural areas in developing countries.
(v) It reduces environmental pollution, enhance self-reliance and reduces pressure on fuel and wood.
Q. 20. Explain any three social and economic values which encourage us to use more and more nonconventional sources of energy.
Ans. In India, non-conventional energy sources consist of those energy sources that are infinite, natural and restorable. For example, tidal energy, solar energy and wind energy are non-conventional sources of energy. Fascinatingly, the application of tidal energy and wind energy was operational in the form of energy sources long back when mineral oil, coal and natural gas were not broadly introduced as conventional sources of energy. Wind energy is a popular form of non-conventional energy. It is utilised for drawing water, which is an essential requirement in irrigating agricultural lands in the rural areas. In addition, it can be utilised for electricity generation. Solar energy is one of the most important nonconventional sources of energy that are utilised in India. The solar cookers are quite economical and they have been a remarkable invention. Biomass is an important source of energy which represents approximately 33% of the overall volume of fuel used in the country. The principle segments of the biomass program are generation and usage of biomass. Smoke-free ambience, improved healthcare and better quality of life and education are some of the salient benefits of biomass.
Q. 21. Give two advantages of ‘wind energy.’ Mention four states in India having avourable conditions for the development of wind energy.
Ans. The advantages of wind energy are :
(i) The wind is free and with modern technology it can be captured efficiently.
(ii) Once the wind turbine is built the energy it produces does not cause greenhouse gases or other pollutants.
(iii) Although wind turbines can be very tall and each take up only a small piece of land. This means that the land below can still be used. This is especially the case in agricultural areas as farming can still be continued. States having favourable conditions are :
Q. 22. What is nuclear power? Mention the important nuclear power stations in India.
Ans. The power obtained by spliting atoms is called nuclear power. Nuclear power has emerged as a viable source in recent times. Important minerals used for the generation of nuclear energy are uranium and thorium. Important nuclear power stations in India are :(i) Tarapur (Maharashtra)
(ii) Rawatbhata near Kota (Rajasthan)
(iii) Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu)
(iv) Narora (Uttar Pradesh)
(v) Kaiga (Karnataka)
(vi) Kakarapara (Gujarat)
Q. 23. “Conservation of minerals is more important than other resources.” Explain giving three examples.
Ans. The naturally occurring materials (in the form of ore) obtained below the Earth’s crust having a definite structure and chemical composition are called minerals. Minerals are non-renewable natural resources. A variety of minerals are found in India. Some of them are found on a large scale whereas certain minerals are found on a small scale. In India, mineral resources are being used since ancient times. The use of minerals has increased tremendously after the independence of India. Minerals are used for production of medicines, machines and agricultural activities. Generally, minerals are the raw material for manufacturing industry. Hence, minerals play a key role in the development of any country. Minerals are formed by inorganic processes of long duration. Minerals are exhaustible resources. Extraction of minerals has increased on a large scale to meet the needs of ever increasing population of the country. Due to improper and excessive use certain minerals are on the verge of extinction. Hence, there is a need of conservation of minerals.
Q. 24. Explain any three methods of conservation of mineral resources in India.
Ans. Conservation of Minerals :
(i) Increased use of alternative resources of energy which are inexhaustible
(ii) In case of metallic minerals, use of scrap metals to be encouraged, especially for all those which are deficient in India.
(iii) Use of substitutes for scarce metals may also reduce their consumption.
(iv) Export of strategic and scarce minerals must be reduced. (Any three points to be explained)
Q. 25. What is conservation of minerals? Why is conservation of minerals necessary?
Ans. Use of minerals in a scientific and sustainable manner to avoid their wastage is called conservation of minerals. Conservation of minerals is necessary :
(i) For the regular advancement of civilization.
(ii) Minerals are exhaustible resources. They are needed for our future generation.
Method to conserve minerals :
(i) Use alternatives in place of minerals like plastic doors in place of iron and steel.
Q. 26. Why is conservation of minerals necessary?
Why is there a need for the conservation of mineral resources in India? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. Conservation of minerals is necessary because :
(i) Minerals are unevenly distributed over space.
(ii) There is inverse relationship in quality of minerals, i.e., good quality minerals are less in quantity as compared to quality of minerals.
(iii) All minerals are exhaustible overtime. These take long to develop geologically and they cannot be replenished immediately at the time of need.