Very Short Questions with Answers (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Write features of expansion of cities in Japan by the mid-seventeenth century.
Ans. (i) By the mid-seventeenth century, Edo city of Japan was the most populated city of the Japan.
(ii) Osaka and Kyoto emerged as larger cities.
(iii) At least six castle towns were there with a population of 50,000 or more.
Q. 2. How did the Japanese do printing in the last years of the sixteenth century?
Ans. Japanese did not like the European printing.
Therefore printing was done with wooden blocks.
Popularity of books tell us that printing of books was done on a large scale.
Q. 3. Why was Japan considered rich in the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries?
Ans. Japan imported luxury goods like silk from China and textiles from India. It paid with gold and silver for these imports. That is why Japan was considered rich in the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries.
Q. 4. Which two steps were taken by Japan to reduce strain on economy which was exerted due to paying for imports in gold and silver?
Ans. (i) Export of precious metal was restricted.
(ii) Silk industry was developed in Nishijin (Kyoto) so as to reduce import of silk. Very quickly this industry became the largest industry of the world.
Q. 4. Discuss any three aspects of the growth of silk industry in Nishijin (Kyoto).
Ans. (i) From 1713 CE, only domestic yarn began to be used there, which greatly encouraged this industry.
(ii) Only the most expensive products were manufactured in Nishijin.
(iii) In 1859 CE, Japan’s silk exports became a major source of profit for Japanese economy.
Q. 4. What is meant by the Meiji Restoration?
Ans. In 1867-68 CE, the Shogun (the Tokugama dynasty) rule in Japan ended and it was replaced by new officials and advisors. These people ruled in the name of the Japanese emperor. Thus, the emperor again became all powerful in the country. He took the title of the Meiji. This event is termed as the Meiji Restoration in Japanese history.
Q. 7. What is meant by the slogan ‘Fukoku Kyohei’ under the Meiji rule in Japan?
Ans. The slogan ‘Fukoku Kyohei’ under the Meiji rule in Japan meant ‘rich country, strong army’. In fact, the government felt that it must develop its economy and build a strong army, otherwise they would be enslaved like India. Hence, they gave the slogan of ‘fukoku kyohei’.
Q. 4. What did Japanese scholars mean
Ans. By the term ‘emperor system’ Japanese scholars meant the system which was run collectively by the emperor, the bureaucracy and the military.
The bureaucracy and the military were answerable to the emperor.
Q. 9. Tell two changes made by the Meiji government.
Ans. (i) All youngmen over twenty years of age had to do a fixed period of military service. (ii) A modern military force was developed.
Q. 10. What were the consequences of giving importance to two different ideals of a democratic government and a modern army in Japan?
Ans. (i) Japan developed economically.
(ii) The army asked for a strict foreign policy to acquire more territory. This policy led to war with China and Russia. Japan came out victorious in both the wars. Very soon it established a colonial empire.
Q. 11. Why Britain signed the Anglo-Japanese treaty in 1902 CE ? What was the importance of this treaty for Japan?
Ans. Britain signed the Anglo-Japanese treaty in 1902 CE, because it wanted to reduce Russian influence in China. This treaty was of great importance for Japan because this treaty raised its status like other colonial powers.
Q. 12. Write any three steps taken to modernise the economy in the Meiji Age.
Ans. (i) Agricultural tax was levied to raise funds.
(ii) Textile machinery was imported from Europe.
(iii) Japan’s first railway line was built in 1870– 72 between Tokyo and the port of Yokohama.
Q. 13. On which two cities of Japan were bombs dropped in the Second World War and why ? Was the use of bombs justified?
Ans. In the Second World War, bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities of Japan.
It was argued that the use of bombs was necessary for early end of the war. No, the use of bombs was not justified because it caused heavy destruction.
Q. 14. What was the effect of the U.S. control (1945–47 CE) on Japan ?
Ans. (i) Japan was dimilitarised.
(ii) A new Constitution was introduced with an Article 9, the so called ‘no war clause’ which renounces the use of war as an instrument of state policy.
Q. 15. In 1903, what views did the Chinese thinkers express criticising India?
Ans. Chinese thinkers wrote that India was a country which was not destroyed by any country but by a company, i.e., East India Company. They also criticised Indians that they were cruel to their own men and were subservient to the British.
Q. 16. From 1870 to 1914, China enjoyed the position of an international colony. How?
Ans. From 1870 to 1914, China had fallen a prey to imperialism. Though it was not ruled by any imperialist country, yet it had been divided into spheres of influence of almost all imperialist powers of the world. Thus, China enjoyed a position of an international colony.
Q. 17. What do you know about the Opium Wars?
Ans. The Opium Wars were fought in China due to illegal trade of opium. The British merchants carried large quantities of opium to China.
Consequently, the Chinese became addicted to opium, which resulted in their physical and moral damage. So the Chinese had to fight against the British.
Q. 18. When did the Revolt of Boxer occur in China ? What was its significance?
Ans. The Revolt of Boxer occurred in China in 1889–90 CE. This revolt was collectively suppressed by the armies of Britain, Japan, Germany and the USA. China was on the verge of partition because of this revolt.
Q. 19. Give a brief description of the establishment of republic in China.
Q. 20. What was the Great Leap Forward (1958–59) in China? Why did it fail?
Ans. The Great Leap Forward (1958–59) was a policy to galvanise China for rapid industrialisation.
But the Chinese leaders failed in this policy. Its main reasons were the following:
(1) Communes were formed in China and people were forced to join them.
(2) Agricultural production decreased.
(3) Valuable resources were wasted.
All this created a serious crisis in the country in 1960–62. The Great Leap Forward drew China backward instead of taking her forward.
Short Questions with Answers (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Describe in brief China’s physiography, ethnic groups and languages.
Ans. Physiography. China is a large continental country. She had several climatic zones. There are three major river systems in her major region viz. the Yellow River or Huang Ho, the third longest river in the world Yangtse river and the Pearl river. A large part of the country is mountainous region.
Ethic Groups and Languages. The Han are the dominant ethic group in China. Other ethnic groups included the Uighur, Hui, Manchu and Tibetan. The major language in China is Chinese. Other minority languages are also spoken in China except dialects like Cantonese (Yue) and Shanghainese (Wu).
Q. 2. Write a note on Chinese food.
Ans. Regional diversity existed in Chinese food. It included mainly four types of food.
(i) Southern or Cantonese cuisine is the best known. This is the cuisine of Canton and its interior regions. It is famous as most overseas Chinese come from the Canton area. It includes dim sum (literally touch your heart). It is a dish of pasteries and dumplings.
(ii) Wheat is the Staple food in northern China.
(iii) In Szechuan, Buddhist monks brought spices in the ancient period along the silk route. Chillies were brought by Portuguese traders in the fifteenth century. These have created a fiery cuisine.
(iv) Both rice and wheat are eaten in the eastern China.
Q. 3. Briefly discuss the physical features of Japan.
Ans. The physical features of Japan are as follows:
(i) Japan is a string of islands. Among these islands the four largest are Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku and Hokkaido. The Okinawan Chain is the southern most. Around 50% of the land area of the main islands is mountainous region.
(ii) Japan is situated in a quite active zone of earthquake.
(iii) The population of Japan is mainly Japanese.
But small minority of Ainu and Koreans also live over there. They were forcibly brought to Japan as labour when Korea was a Japanese colony.
(iv) Animals are not reared in Japan.
(v) Rice is the staple crop and fish is the major source of protein in Japan.
Q. 4. How long did Shoguns of the Tokugawa dynasty rule over Japan ? How did they run their rule?
Ans. There had been the rule of an emperor who lived in Kyoto. But by the twelfth century real power came to Shoguns. They in theory ruled in the name of the emperor. From 1603 to 1867 CE, the position of Shogun was held by the members of Tokugawa family. Whole of the country was divided into 250 domains which were ruled by the lords called Daimyo.
Daimyos were controlled by the Shogun who ordered them to stay for a long period at the capital Edo (modern Tokyo) so that they would not become a threat to them. Major cities and mines were also controlled by the Shoguns. The warrior class of Japan, the Samurai, were the ruling elite. They served the shoguns and daimyo.
Q. 5. Examine the changes that occur in the Japanese economy under the Tokugawa rule.
Ans. Under the Tokugawa rule, Japan was considered as a rich country. This is because the luxury goods like silk from China and textiles from India were imported into Japan. These imports were paid with gold and silver. It strained the economy. As a result restrictions were put, by the Tokugawa, on the export of precious metals. They also took certain steps to develop silk industry in Nishijin in Kyoto so that the import of silk could be reduced. The silk produced at Nishijin came to be known as the best silk in the world. The increased use of money and the creation of stock market in rice show that the economy was developing in new ways.
Q. 6. Throw light on Commodere Perry’s arrival in the Japan and its importance.
Ans. In 1853 CE, Commodore Matthew Perry was sent to Japan by the U.S.A. He demanded a treaty to be signed by the Japanese government. According to it, Japan would make diplomatic and trade relations with the USA. Japan signed this treaty in 1854. In fact, Japan was seen as a country on the route to hina which the U.S.A. saw as a major market.
Besides, the USA needed a place in the Pacific Ocean so that her ships could be refueled. At that time, Holland was only one western country that traded with Japan.
Importance. Japanese politics was greatly affected by the arrival of Perry. Till then, the emperor had possessed very little political power. Now he reemerged as an important political power in the country. In 1868 CE, a movement was started with which Shogun was forcibly removed from power. It brought the emperor to Edo. Edo was made the capital and was renamed as Tokyo which means ‘eastern Capital.’
Q. 7. What arrangements were given in favour and against Japan’s opening to the outer world?
Ans. Officials and the people of Japan knew that some of the European countries were establishing their colonial empires in India and at many other places. News of Chinese defeat from the British were spreading and were even depicted in plays. It created a fear in people that Japan might be made a colony if it came in contact with the outer world. Still many scholars and leaders of the country wanted that European ideas and technologies must be learnt. But some other scholars wanted to exclude the Europeans.
Some people wanted that there must be a limited and gradual opening of the country to the outer world.
Therefore, the Japanese government launched a policy with the slogan of ‘Fukoku Kyohei’ which means rich country, strong army. They came to know that they are required to develop their economy and build a strong army, otherwise they would be enslaved like India. For the purpose, creation of a sense of nationhood among the people and transformation of subject into citizens were needed.
Q. 8. How the ‘Emperor system’ was rebuilt in Japan?
Ans. The Meiji government of Japan started building of the ‘emperor system’. By the ‘emperor system’ Japanese scholars meant a system in which power was exercised by the emperor, along with the bureaucracy and the military. The bureaucracy and the military were accountable to the emperor. The government sent some officials to European countries to study their monarchies on which they planned to make their own. The emperor was considered a direct descendent of the Sun Goddess. With this, he was also made the leader of westernisation. His birthday was declared as a national holiday. He began to wear western-style military uniforms. On his name, edicts were issued to set up modern institutions. The Imperial Rescript on Education of 1890 motivated the people to get education, advance public good and to promote common interests.
Q. 9. Write a note on a new school system adopted in Japan from the 1870s.
Ans. From the 1870s, a new school system was adopted in Japan. According to this system, Schooling was made compulsory for all boys and girls. By 1910s, no child was deprived of schooling as the tution fees were very less. In the beginning, the curriculum was based on Western ideas. But by the 1870s, stress was given on loyalty and the study of Japanese history, along with modern ideas. The Education Ministry started to keep a control over the curriculum, in selection of textbooks and in training of teachers.
Learning of the subject of moral culture was made compulsory for everyone. Books started to motivate the children to respect their parents, be loyal to the nation and become good citizens.
Q. 10. What measures did the Meiji government of Japan take to integrate the nation?
Ans. The government established a new administrative structure by altering old village and domain boundaries. It was necessary for each administrative unit to have enough revenue so that the local schools and health facilities could be maintained. It also had to serve as a recruitment centre for the military. It became necessary for all young men, over the age of twenty, to do a fixed period of military service. One modern military force was developed. A legal system was also developed to control the formation of political groups. Censor system was to be made strict. The government had to face opposition in the measures taken by it. Military and bureaucracy were kept under direct control of the emperor. Its objective was to keep both these groups, outside the control of the government even after a constitution was enacted.