Q. 1. What is ‘sectoral planning’?
Ans. The sectoral planning provides general guidelines directed towards ensuring the orderly and efficient development of facilities, land uses , transportation systems, population density and sequencing of development. Full consideration must be given to the costs and benefits of various actions upon the present and future social, economic and environmental fabric of the area.
Q. 2. What are the two approaches to planning?
Ans. Generally, there are two approaches to planning, i.e. sectoral planning and regional planning.
Q. 3. Examine the concept of ‘regional planning’.
Ans. The concept of regional planning: To develop a particular region/ to reduce the regional imbalance in the development.
Q. 4. What was the special feature of the 8th Five Year Plan?
Ans. In the 8th Five Year Plan, special area programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas, the north-eastern states, tribal areas and backward areas.
Q. 5. When were the Hill Area Development Programmes initiated?
Ans. Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan .
Q. 6. Mention two problems faced by India during the Third Five Year Plan.
Ans. Severe drought and wars with China in 1962 and Pakistan in 1965.
Q. 7. What were those two reasons due to which the 8th Five Year Plan got delayed?
Ans. Political instability and liberalisation.
Q. 8. During which Plan period Hill Area Development Programme was initiated?
Ans. Fifth Five Year Plan.
Q. 9. Which major programme was initiated in Fourth Five Year Plan?
Ans. Drought Prone Area Programme.
Q. 10. Name the programmes that were directed towards the development of target areas.
Ans. Some of the programmes directed towards the development of target areas are:
(i) Command Area Development Programme
(ii) Drought Prone Area Development Programme
(iii) Desert Development Programme
(iv) Hill Area Development Programme
(v) The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA)
(vi) Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA).
Q. 11. What were the major objectives of developing drought prone areas?
Ans. (i) Providing employment to the people and creating productive assets.
(ii) Emphasis on land development programmes and irrigation projects.
(iii) It lays emphasis on labour intensive civil work.
(iv) Emphasis on afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity/roads/markets/credit and services.
(v) Its focus is also on the development of agriculture and allied sectors.
(vi) It emphasises on restoration of ecological balance.
Q. 12. What are the two main objectives of the ‘Drought Prone Area Programme’? How is Drought Prone Area Programme implemented? Explain.
Ans. Two objectives of drought prone area programme:
(i) To provide employment to the people in drought prone areas.
(ii) To create productive assets. Implementation:
(i) This programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour intensive civil works.
(ii) It emphasised on irrigation projects/ land development programmes/afforestation/ grassland development.
(iii) Creation of basic infrastructure such as electricity/ roads/ markets/ credit/ services. (iv) Adoption of integrated watershed development approach at micro level.
(v) Restoration of ecological balance.
Q. 13. What do you understand by planning? How is it an on-going process?
Ans. The process involving the sequence of actions which are designed to solve problems in future is called planning.
Problems which are chosen for planning get changed from time to time. But these problem always remain economic and social. There is also a difference in level and period of planning from time to time. All types of planning have a sequence of action.
Q. 14. What environmental problems are being faced at Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
Ans. Environmental problems:
(ii) Soil salinity
The intensive irrigation and excessive use of water has led to the emergence of twin environmental problems of waterlogging and soil salinity in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.
Q. 15. How has the Gaddi tribal community of Bharmaur region maintained a distinct identity?
Ans. (i) They practiced transhumance in the Himalayan Region.
(ii) They conversed their culture through Gaddiali dialects.
Q. 16. Which is the most backward area of Himachal Pradesh?
Ans. Bharmaur tribal area.
Q. 17. Write any two distinct features of the tribal community called ‘Gaddi.’
Ans. The Gaddi practised transhumance and conversed through Gaddiali dialect. They practice agriculture and allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing.
Q. 18. When was the development process of Bharmaur started?
Ans. The process of development of tribal area of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis were included among ‘scheduled tribes.’
Q. 19. When was the Indira Gandhi Canal Project launched?
Ans. Conceived by Kanwar Sain in 1948, the canal project was launched on 31st March, 1958.
Q. 20. What is the extent of the Indira Gandhi Canal?
Ans. The canal originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert (Marusthali) of Rajasthan.
Q. 21. Explain the importance of ‘Integrated Tribal Development Project’ implemented in Bharmaur region of Himachal Pradesh.
Explain the main aims of ‘Bharmaur Tribal Area Development Plan.’
Ans. Bharmaur tribal area comprises of Bharmaur and Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. It is inhabited by ‘Gaddi’ a tribal community who practised transhumance and the economy is largely based on agriculture and allied activities such as sheep and goat rearing. Under the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was designated as one of the Five Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal Pradesh.
(i) This plan laid the highest priority on development of transport and communication, agriculture and allied activities, and social and community services.
(ii) The most significant contribution of urban subplan in Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care , potable water, roads and communication.
(iii) The social benefits derived from ITDP include tremendous increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage. The female literacy rate in the region has also increased.
(iv) The cultivation of pulses and other cash crops has increased and there is a declining importance of pastoralism.
Q. 22. Explain the importance of Indira Gandhi Canal for providing water for irrigation in the Canal Command Area.
Ans. Indira Gandhi Canal, previously known as the Rajasthan Canal, is one of the largest canal systems in India. Introduction of canal irrigation has brought about a large scale transformation in the agricultural economy of the region.
(i) Soil moisture has been a limiting factor in successful growing of crops in this area. Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping.
(ii) The traditional crops sown in the area, gram, bajra and jowar has been replaced by wheat, cotton, groundnut and rice. This is the result of intensive irrigation.
(iii) The intensive irrigation, has led to tremendous increase in agricultural and livestock productivity.
(iv) The crops can be grown every year with the help of canal water. (Any three)
Q. 23. What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region.
Ans. ITDP was aimed at improving the quality of life of the Gaddis and narrowing the gap in the level of development between Bharmaur and other areas of Himachal Pradesh. This plan laid the highest priority on development of transport and communications, agriculture and allied activities, and social and community services. The most significant contribution of tribal sub-plan in Bharmaur region is the development of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity. The social benefits derived from ITDP include tremendous increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage. The female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 42.83 per cent in 2001. The difference between males and females in literacy level, i.e., gender inequality, has also declined.
Q. 24. Explain any three achievements of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area Project.
Ans. The three achievements of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area Project are:
(i) After the construction of the Indira Gandhi Canal, irrigation facilities are available over an area of 6,770 square km in Jaisalmer district and 37 square km in Barmer district.
(ii) The canal has transformed the barren deserts of Rajasthan into fertile and good fields.
(iii) Besides providing water for agriculture, the canal supplies drinking water to hundreds of people in far-flung areas.
Q. 25. Describe the importance of Indira Gandhi Canal.
Ans. Importance of Indira Gandhi Canal:
(i) It has provided water for drinking.
(ii) Nomadic tribes have now settled life.
(iii) Due to irrigation, it is possible to grow various crops like cotton, wheat, etc.
(iv) Plantation of trees has also taken place
Q. 26. Define the term “Development.”
Ans. The term development is generally used to describe the state of particular societies and the process of changes experienced by them. The concept of development is dynamic and has evolved during the second half of twentieth century. It also includes the issues such as improving the wellbeing and living standard of people, availing of the health, education and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights.
Q. 27. Define the concept of sustainable development.
Ans. Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Q. 28. What is ‘Warabandi system?’
Ans. ‘Waranbandi system’ means equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet.
Q. 29. What does sustainable development takes care of?
Ans. Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social and economic aspects of development during the present times and pleads for conservation of resources to enable the future generations to use these resources. It takes into account the development of whole humankind which have common future.
Q. 30. What factor determines the human environment interaction?
Ans. The processes of human environment interaction depend upon the level of technology and institutions nurtured by a society.