Q. 1. Who is the father of Political Science ?
Ans. Aristotle is the father of Political Science.
Q. 2. Give the meaning of the word ‘Theory’.
Ans. Arnold Breacht defines theory saying that, “It is always used to designate attempts to explain a phenomena especially when that is done in general and abstract terms”.
Q. 3. From which language the word ‘Politics’ is derived ?
Ans. The word ‘Politics’ is derived from Greek word ‘Polis’ which means city-state.
Q. 4. What is the origin of the word ‘Theory’ ?
Ans. The word theory originates from a Greek word, ‘Theoria’ that suggests a well focused mental look taken at something in state of contemplation with an intent to grasp it.
Q. 5. Give the meaning of Political Theory.
Ans. In simple words, Political Theory is a theory about what is Political Science and the philosophy of something that is political.
Q. 6. What you think about the increasing internet commerce in future ?
Ans. Internet commerce is all set to increase in the future.
Q. 6. Write down any one characteristics of Political Theory.
Ans. Political theory is an inter-disciplinary study.
Q. 8. Write down two definitions of Political Theory.
Ans. 1. According to J.G. Plano and R.E. Riggs, “Political Theory is a body of thought that seeks to evaluate, explain and predict political phenomena.”
2. According to Andrew Hacher, “Political Theory is a combination of a disintegrated search for the principles of good State and good society on the one hand and disinterested search for knowledge of political and social reality on the other.”
Q. 9. Write down any two subjects included in the scope of Political Theory.
Ans. 1. State and Government are the main subjects of Political Theory.
2. The Political Theory include the study of power and political ideology.
Q. 10. What is the origin of the word ‘Politics’?
Ans. The word ‘politics’ is derived from Greek word ‘Polis’ which means City-State. In ancient Greek small cities were independent states and the subject concerned with the study of City-States was known as politics.
Q. 11. Give any two definitions of traditional view of Politics.
Ans. 1. According to Dr. Garner, “Politics begins and ends with the State.”
2. According to Paul Jenet, “Politics is that part of social science which treats of the foundations of the State and the principles of government.”
Q. 12. Write any two characteristics of traditional view of Politics.
Ans. 1. Traditional view is formal and institutional.
2. Traditional view is normative.
Q. 13. Write any two definitions of modern view of Politics.
Ans. 1. According to David Easton, “Politics is the study of authoritative allocation of values as it is influenced by the distribution and use of power.”
2. According to Lasswell, “Politics is the study of sharing power.”
Q. 14. Mention the name of any four writers who support the modern view of politics.
Ans. (1) Hebert J. Spiro
(2) Bernard Gich
(3) David Easton
Q. 15. Mention any two subjects of Political Science according to traditional view.
Ans. Traditional scholars of Political Science concentrated their study on two institutional basis:
1. It is the study of the State. State is the pivot around which Political Science revolves. We study the past, present and the future of the State.
2. Study of government. The study of government is most essential in Political Science. How the government is formed ? What are its various forms? What are the merits and demerits of the various forms of government? What are the various organs of government ? Political Science studies all these aspects of the government.
Q. 16. Mention the name of any two subjects of Political Science according to Modern approach.
Ans. According to modern approach main subjects of Political Science are as follows :
1. Political Science study the concept of power and authority.
2. Political Science is concerned with authoritative allocation of values for the society.
Q. 1. Mention two utilities of Political Theory.
Ans. (1) Helps to understand Political reality.Political Theory helps to understand political realities. It makes the study of facts and events easy as it removes the illusions and superstitions regarding any event.
(2) Simplification of Knowledge. Political Theory simplifies the knowledge. It converts the facts into symbols so as to make them easy to remember and define.
Q. 18. Write two problems of Modern Political Theory.
Ans. 1. Lack of adequate place for values. The adequate place for values is the main problem of modern view of Political Theory. Modern political theorists differentiate about the place of values in Political Science.
2. Lack of Scientific Theory. There is no scientific theory which is accepted by all political theorists.
Q. 19. Define the term ‘Political Science’.
Ans. The scholars have given different definitions of Political Science. According to Garner, “Political Science begins and ends with the State”. According to Dr. Leacock, “Political Science deals with government only”. According to Gilchrist, “Political Science deals with the general problems of the State and Government.” Writers like Kalpan, Dahl and Almond and many others regard Political Science to be a study of Political system as a whole. In short, Political Science deals with State, Government, Man Power and Authority.
Q. 20. Describe the origin of the word ‘Political Science’.
Explain the meaning of the word ‘Politics’.
Ans. In ancient times, the word ‘Politics’ was used for the term ‘Political Science’. The term politics is derived from the Greek word ‘Polis’ which means the City-State, the general form of political organisation obtaining in ancient Greece. In ancient Greece there were small City-States. ‘Politics’ therefore meant to be in ancient Greece, the science of the ‘City-State’ or pertaining to State and Government. Aristotle concentrated his study on these City-States. He drew his practical and theoretical conclusion in his study in his famous book ‘Politics’. Now, in place of City-State, we have big territorial states. Nowadays, Political Science is the science which studies the origin, necessity, development, nature and future of the State.
Q. 21. Make a distinction between Political Science and Politics.
Ans. 1. The term ‘Politics’ refers to the current problems of government. Politics is the practical aspect of Political Science while Political Science is the academic aspect of politics. Political activities are the laboratories of Political Science.
2. Political Science is more of a science while politics is more of an art. Political Science is a subject which imparts knowledge about states and government. The political thinkers study situations, conclude them and present principles. It depends on politics to implement or not to implement these conclusions and principles.
3. Political Science is moral based while politics is based on convenience.
4. Politics is more flexible than Political Science.
Q. 22. Political Science is not a Science. Give reasons in favour of your answer.
Ans. The writers who do not accept Political Science as a science have put forth the following arguments:
1. Lack of unanimity of Fundamentals. The scholars of Political Science do not hold unanimous opinions regarding the theories, subject-matter and conclusions of Political Science.
2. Impossibility of subject-matter. Like Physical Sciences, Political Science has neither laboratory nor object for experiments. Experiments are not possible in Political Science like those of Physical Sciences.
3. Prediction is difficult. The claim of Political Science as a Science is also ruled out on the ground that prediction is difficult in this subject. It cannot predict the coming events. In all other Physical Sciences, prediction is possible.
4. Cause-effect relationship not clear. In Political Science, relationship between cause and effect cannot be established.
Q. 23. Discuss the scope of Political Science.
Ans. 1. State is the pivot around which Political Science revolves. Political Science studies the past, present and future of the State.
2. Political Science studies government and political institutions.
3. Political Science studies international relations and international organisations.
4. Political Science studies the nature of relationship between the individual and the State.
Q. 24. Political Science is a Science. Give reasons.
Ans. 1. Systematic knowledge. It is not correct to say that knowledge of Political Science is not systematic. The facts regarding the life of the State are collected from history and through observation in it. These facts are classified, coordinated and systematised.
2. General laws can be derived. In Political Science, the relationship between cause and effect like other natural sciences cannot be established. But general causes which can result in occurrence of some events in a country can be found out from the study of happenings in another country.
3. Experimentation is possible. The experiments are possible in Political Science. The entire world is a laboratory for Political Science and experiments are performed in this laboratory.
4. Prediction is possible. There is scope of predicting things in Political Science. It is true that sometimes the predictions do not come out to be true but generally its predictions come out to be true.
Q. 25. What do you mean by Political Theory ?
Ans. Political Theory is a branch of political science. In simple words, political theory is a theory about what is political science and the philosophy of something that is political. According to Alan Issak, “A Political Theory might be defined as a set of generalisations containing concepts with which we are directly acquainted and those which are operationally defined, but in addition and more important theoretical concepts that although not directly tied to observation and logically related to those concepts that are.” Bluntschli states that, “Political Theory is the science which is concerned with the State which endeavours to understand and comprehend the State in its fundamental conditions, its essential nature, its various forms of manifestations, its developments.” David Held defines Political Theory as a, “complex network of concepts and generalisations about life involving ideas, assumptions and statements about the nature, purpose and key features of government, State and society and about the political capabilities of human beings.”
Ans. The scope of Political Theory is as discussed ahead:
1. State and Government are the Main Subjects of Political Theory. State is the main subject of political science and theory because the machinery of political science revolves around the State. In the sphere of political theory we study the nature and size of existing State and the practicability of the fundamental principle of the present government. But the nature of State and government have changed with the time. Now, their present nature is different from their past. Political theorists study the reasons for the origin of State and its process of development.
2. Study of Power. The political theory also includes the study of power. In other words, “Political theory is the study of power process.” Power has many forms — political, economical and social power, individual and public power, national and international power, etc.
3. Wider Scope of the Subject. The study of political theory consist of study in different fields i.e. formal, informal, economy, social, psychological, geographical, ethical, political, religion, and cultural. These factors influence political system. In political theory, we study society, state and international politics.
4. Study of Political Ideology. Political theorists also study political ideologies. Various ideologies have been prevalent in the society from Plato to nowadays. For example, Idealism, Individualism, Marxism, Gandhism, Socialism, Utilitarianism, etc.
Q. 27. Discuss the importance of Political Theory.
Ans. The importance of Political Theory is as discussed below:
1. Helps to Understand Political Reality. Political theory helps to understand political realities. It makes the study of facts and events easy as it removes the illusions and superstitions regarding some event.
2. Simplification of Knowledge. Political theory simplifies the knowledge. It converts the facts into symbols so as to make them easy to remember and define.
3. It Legitimates the Government. Political theory legitimates the government. To maintain the supremacy, the influential classes take recourse of political theory.
4. Use of Proper Means to Fulfil the Objectives. Political theorist encourages people to use adequate means to fulfill their objectives and needs. Political Theory is the only means to balance political facts and events and study pattern and human values.