Q. 1. Indira Gandhi’s imposition of National Emergency in 1975 cannot be justified. Give one argument.
Ans. Indira Gandhi’s imposition of National emergency in 1975 cannot be justified.
1. Emergency was imposed not because ‘India was in danger’ but because ‘Indira was i danger’.
2. Law and order situation was mostly normal.
3. There was no threat to the unity and integrity of the nation.
Q. 2. In which year fifth general elections to Lok Sabha were held?
Ans. In 1971.
Q. 3. In January 1974, students of Gujarat started an agitation against which two major problems?
Ans. The two main problems were:
(i) Wide spread corruption even at higher levels.
(ii) Sharply rising prices of food grains and cooking oil.
Q. 4. Find the odd one out in the context of proclamation of Emergency.
(i) The call for ‘Total Revolution’
(ii) The Railway Strike of 1974
(iii)The Naxalite Movement
(iv) The Allahabad High Court Verdict
(v) The findings of the Shah Commission Report
Ans. The Naxalite Movement is the odd one out.
Q. 5. State whether the following statements about emergency are correct or incorrect.
(i) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(ii) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(iii)It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(iv) Many opposition leaders were arrested during the Emergency.
(v) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.
Ans. (i) Correct
Q. 6. Examine the conditions responsible for the growth of Naxalite movement in India.Suggest ways and means to crush it.
Ans. The Naxalites are the followers of the policies of Marx and Lenin and particularly active in the states of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, etc.There was an uprising among the agricultural peasants of Naxalbari Station (West Bengal) in 1967. It soon spread to the neighbouring regions.The movement gave rise to formation of a new political party CMI(ML) under Charu Majumdar.The majorly affected areas were the backward and tribal areas of these regions. Presently, the movement has taken the shape of violence, exploitation, forced labour, etc.
Although, the Naxalites are not directly involved in Indian politics but are fairly in connection with the system through parties like CPI(ML).
Q. 7. Explain the reasons for students’ movement of 1974 in Bihar and the role played by Jayaprakash Narayan in this movement.
Ans. Reasons for students’ movement of 1974 in Bihar :-
(i) Rising prices of food grains
(ii) Food scarcity
(iii) Unemployment and corruption.
Jayaprakash Narayan’s role in the movement :
(i) Jayaprakash Narayan (J. P.) demanded the dismissal of the congress government in Bihar.
(ii) He gave a call for total revolution in the social, economic and political spheres in order to establish what he considered to be true democracy.
(iii) The movement was beginning to influence national politics.
(iv) J. P. wanted to spread the Bihar Movement to other parts of the country.
Q. 8. Explain any two lessons learnt from Emergency imposed in 1975.
Ans. Some important lessons taught by Emergency are:
(i) India cannot be restrained from democracy.
(ii) Internal Emergency in the country can be imposed if there is armed rebellion against the government, and that too can be imposed by written advice of Council of Ministers to the President of India.
(iii) The citizens got aware of their public liberties as well as civil liberties.
Q. 9. Examine the legacy of Emergency of 1975 in India.
Ans. The legacy of Emergency is felt as:
(i) From 1977 to 1980, Congress ideology was changed to be as the only socialist and propoor party of the country.
(ii) The opposition got the idea and concept of non-Congressism.
(iii) The constitutional crisis rose where by process of amendment of Constitution was modified.
(iv) The political crisis arose as the party in dominance was forced to impose Emergency against public interest.
(v) The political party system was changed due to tension on the concept that Indian democracy is institution based democracy.
Q. 10. Why is Emergency and period around it known as the period of constitutional crisis? Explain.
Ans. (i) Conflict between Parliament and the Judiciary on the question ‘can the Parliament abridge the Fundamental Rights?’
(ii) Can the Parliament curtail the right to property? Court said that it cannot amend the Constitution to curtail the rights.
(iii) The Parliament amended the Constitution saying that it can abridge no Fundamental Right for giving effect to Directive Principles but the Supreme Court also rejected it. Due to these conflicts, this period is called the period of constitutional crisis.
Q. 11. How far do you agree that the government had misused its emergency powers during 1975-1977? Explain.
What reasons did the government give for declaring a national emergency in 1975 ?
Ans. No, the government had not misused its emergency powers during 1975-1977 as the
Emergency was imposed on the grounds of:
(i) Restoration of law and order.
(ii) Restoration of efficient administration.
(iii)Implementation of pro-poor welfare programmes.