Very Short Questions with Answers (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. What were the advantages of using coke as a substitute for charcoal in smelting?
Ans. (i) Coke could generate high temperatures.
(ii) The melted iron permitted finer and larger castings than before.
Q. . What was the significance of steam power in the industrialisation of Britain?
Ans. (i) Steam power provided pressure at high temperatures that enabled the use of a broad range of machinery.
(ii) It was the only source of energy that was inexpensive and reliable.
Q. 3. When did Thomas Newcomen build steam engine? What was its major defect?
Q. 4. What unit of measurement of mechanical energy did Watt make?
Ans. Watt made horsepower the unit of measurement of mechanical energy. It equated the ability of a horse to lift 33,000 pounds (14,969 kg) one foot (0.3 m) in one minute. Horsepower remains as a universally used index of mechanical energy.
Q. . For what and why were canals initially built?
Ans. Canals were initially built to transport coal to cities. This was because the bulk and weight of coal made its transport by road much slower and more expensive than barges on canals.
Q. . What problems did the use of canals reveal in the 1830s?
Ans. (1) The congestion of vessels made movement slow on certain stretches of canals.
(2) Frost, flood or drought limited the time of use of canals.
Q. . Who constructed a was its feature?
Ans. Locomotive called ‘The Blutcher’ was constructed by a railway engineer George Stephenson.
This locomotive could pull a weight of 30 tons up a hill at 4 mph.
Q. 8. When and between which stations the first railway line in Britain was constructed?
Ans. The first railway line in Britain was constructed in 1825 C.E. between the cities of Stockhom and Darlington.
Q. 9. Why did industrialists in Britain prefer to employ women and children ? Tell any two reasons.
Ans. (i) Women and children would be less agitated about their poor working conditions.
(ii) They would work for lower wages than men.
Q. 10. What were the demands of participants of Luddism?
Ans. Following were the demands of participants of Luddism:
(i) Minimum wages.
(ii) Control over women and child labour.
(iii) Employment for those who had lost their jobs due to coming of machinery.
(iv) Right to form trade unions to legally present their demands.
Q. 11. What do you mean by Industrial Revolution?
Ans. Those quick changes with which revolution came in means of production during 18th and 19th century are part of Industrial Revolution. As a result, large factories were established in place of cottage industries.
Q. 12. Define the Agricultural Revolution.
Ans. In the eighteenth century, agriculture witnessed a great progress and increase in production due to scientific methods and the use of new machines.
This process is termed as the Agricultural Revolution.
Q. 13. How did a revolution occur in textile industry in the beginning of modern age? Which two machines greatly contributed to it?
Ans. Many inventions were brought about in the beginning of modern age, which made easier the weaving and spinning of cloth. This brought about a revolution in textile industry.
The flying shuttle and power loom were two machines that greatly contributed to the revolution in textile industry.
Q. 14. Write two causes of the Agricultural Revolution in the eighteenth century.
Ans. (1) New scientific researches had been made in agriculture.
(2) Ploughing and harvesting took much less time with the use of new machines. This increased agricultural production.
Q. 15. Write two good effects of the Agricultural Revolution.
Ans. (1) People became rich and their living standard rose.
(2) Big farmers came in place of small farmers.
Q. 16. Tell two bad effects of the Agricultural Revolution.
Ans. (1) Big landlords began to exploit landless farmers. This deteriorated the condition of agricultural workers.
(2) Cotton industry was ruined.
Q. 17. Explain two social effects of the Industrial Revolution.
Ans. (1) The problem of unemployment was created, as machines had replaced manual labour.
(2) Condition of the working class deteriorated.
Q. 18. What were the Corn Laws?
Ans. The Corn Laws were those laws which prevented the import of cheaper food until prices in Britain had risen to a certain level.
Q. 19. Write ill effects of industrialisation.
Ans. Unemployment, smoky, crowded cities, unhealthy living and working conditions and rivalry and conflict among nations were the ill effects of industrialisation.
Q. 20. Which steps were taken after Industrial Revolution to improve condition of workers?
Write any two steps.
Ans. (i) Factory laws were passed and time limit of the work was fixed.
(ii) Children with age less than the prescribed age were not allowed to do work in factories.
Short Questions with Answers (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Describe the five important factors responsible for the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain.
Ans. The five important factors responsible for the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain were as under:
1. Plentiful Capital. Britain had accumulated large amounts of money by foreign trade. The British merchants were very rich and could invest their capital in industries.
2. Availability of Raw Materials. Britain could easily obtain raw materials for its factories from her colonies.
3. Landless Unemployment. Agricultural revolution had greatly increased the number of landless peasants in Britain. These people were ready to work in factories at low wages.
4. Reserves of Coal and Iron. Sufficient reserves of coal and iron were available in Britain. These were located close to each other which made the easy establishment of industries.
5. New Inventions. Britain witnessed many technical inventions. The manufacturing of steam railways, steam engines and steam ships brought rapid changes in industries.
Q. 2. What were the chief features of the Industrial Revolution in Britain?
Ans. In the second half of the eighteenth century, rapid changes came in industrial sphere in Britain.
This has been named as the Industrial Revolution in history. Following were the chief features of this revolution:
(1) The Industrial Revolution occurred first of all in Britain. Britain had raw materials as well as markets for selling manufactured goods. All these factors were not available at one time in any other country of Europe.
(2) Domestic system was replaced by the factory system. Large cities were set up and factories established. Machines were used in cities.
(3) The Industrial Revolution was based on the machines that brought astonishing progress in the production of textile industry. Machines built by Hargreaves and Arkwright created a revolution.
Means of transportation were developed and work in mines was improved.
(4) The British economy shifted from agriculture to industries. Peasants became mill workers.
(5) The Industrial Revolution deteriorated the workers’ condition. They were forced to work for 15-18 hours. Their colonies were often affected by diseases and epidemics.
Q. 3. Discuss the major consequences of the Industrial Revolution.
Ans. The Industrial Revolution resulted in various significant consequences, which are discussed below:
(1) Due to the Industrial Revolution, cottage industry was replaced by the factories. As a result, people who ran small industries in homes, had to shut down their industries and work on wages in factories.
(2) Before the Industrial Revolution, most of the villagers were dependent on agriculture. Often, all the needs of people were fulfilled in villages. But now cities became centres of economic life and village peasants left villages and settled in cities. Thus, most of people had no concern with land.
(3) Rise of population in cities created the problems of housing, health and sanitation.
(4) The Industrial Revolution greatly increased production, as a result of which goods were available at cheaper rates.
(5) Workers had to work continuously for longer hours in polluted environment in factories and were paid lower wages. Consequently, their health condition became worst.
(6) Due to the Industrial Revolution, all profits went to capitalists or industrialists. As a result, capitalism got strength.
(7) The Industrial Revolution later led to the development of colonialism, imperialism and socialism.
Q. 4. Which conditions are conducive for industrialisation?
Ans. Generally ‘M’ factors are very much necessary for industrialisation. These are–Money, Material, Machine, Market, Man. Money is required to establish an industry. Machines could be bought with money.
Near availability of material or raw material is very helpful for industrialisation. Non–availability of material in the near- by areas could have adverse impact on profits. Market is very much necessary for consumption of furnished goods. Most important of these is man who is proved very helpful in the production and consumption of material.
Q. 5. How the development of labour unions proved helpful in stopping the policy of noninterference?
Ans. With Industrial Revolution, an idea came into forefront that government must not interfere in trade and industries. This idea was given in a book called ‘Wealth of Nations’ written by Adam Smith.
Government accepted the idea and stopped interfering in trade and industries.
This policy of non–interference of government had very adverse impacts on labourers. Industrialists used to take more work with less wages to the labourers.
There was no government support for labourers.
Therefore, labourers decided to improve their condition themselves. They formed their unions and started to struggle for better wages and fixed hours of work. But when industrialists hardly paid any attention to their demand it then led to conflicts among them. The government was then forced to interfere in the conflicts between industrialists and labourers. Government passed many laws for their welfare. In this way, government was forced to leave the policy of non-interference and this was because of labour unions.
Q. 6. How did industrialisation affect agriculture, transport, communication and trade and why the need for more education was felt?
Ans. Effect on Agriculture. Agriculture was greatly affected by industrialisation. A number of peasants became unemployed with the mechanisation of agriculture. They were forced to work as labourers in industries. But mechanisation of agriculture increased the production.
Effect of Transport and Communication.
Production of goods increased with industrialisation.
With increase in production, factory owners had to send the furnished goods at those places where they could be consumed in great quantity. That is why means of transport were developed. In this way we can say that industrialisation had greatly affected the means of transport and communication.
To manage industries and to maintain accounts, a need of higher education was felt. Excessive production was send to other countries. For this, it was necessary to learn foreign languages. Just by learning foreign languages, trade relations with other countries could be established. To run and maintain large machines, foreign education was also required.
In this way we can see that need of education was felt with advent of industrialisation.
Q. 7. Explain weaknesses and demerits of producing goods and services under capitalist system of production.
Ans. Weaknesses in production of Goods. Few weaknesses always remain in the production of goods under capitalist system and some of them are given below:
(i) Capitalist only produce things for his own welfare. Actually his main motive is to earn more and more profit.
(ii) Capitalist never cared about quality while producing things. Instead, he tries to produce those things which could earn him more profit. That is why low quality goods come in the market.
(iii) When any good, made by capitalist, becomes popular he then tries to sell it in black market as well.
Weaknesses in system of Services.
(i) Capitalists try to take more work by giving minimum wages.
(ii) They also employ children and women with less wages.
(iii) They never care about providing health facilities and other facilities to their labourers.
(iv) They never try to improve the condition of factories.
Q. 8. What was the signficance of London?
Ans. The significance of London was as follows:
(1) London was the largest among eleven cities of Britain whose population doubled between 1750 and 1800 C.E.
(2) It served as the hub of Britain’s markets.
(3) All other large cities were located close to London.
(4) It was the principal source of loans for international trade.
(5) It was the centre of a triangular trade network that drew in England, Africa and the West Indies.
(6) The companies trading in America and Asia had their offices in London.
Q. 9. How did the Derbys of Shropshire bring about a revolution in the metallurgical industry?
Ans. The Derbys of Shropshire brought about a revolution in the metallurgic industry in the following ways:
(i) The first Derby invented a blast furnace in 1709 C.E. This furnace used coke which could generate high temperatures. Now it was not necessary to depend on charcoal for furnaces. The melted iron, which came out of these furnaces, allowed finer and larger castings than before.
(ii) The Second Derby developed wrought iron from pig iron and this wrought iron was less brittle.
(iii) In 1779 C.E., the third Derby built the first iron bridge in the world. This bridge was situated in Coalbrookdale, spanning the river Severn.
Q. 10. What was the importance of cotton industry for Britain?
Ans. Production of cotton was not possible in Britain. Even then from the decade of 1780, cotton industry became the symbol of the British industrialisation. This industry had two main features which could have been seen in other industries as well:
(i) Whole of the cotton had to be imported as it was a necessary raw material.
(ii) Major part of cloth was exported. For whole of this process, it was necessary for England to have its own colonies, so that enough cotton could be imported from colonies and cloth could be sold in the market of colonies. Imperialism was encouraged by this process. This industry was mainly dependent upon women and children working in the factories.