Q. 1. Define the term ‘Transport Network.’
Ans. Several places (nodes) joined together by a series of routes (links) to form a pattern which permit vehicular movement or flow of some commodity is called transport network.
Q. 2. Explain the term ‘Golden Quadrilateral.’
Ans. Golden Quadrilateral comprises construction of 5,846 km long 4/6 lane, high density traffic corridor, to connect India’s four big metro cities of DelhiMumbai-Chennai-Kolkata. With the construction of Golden Quadrilateral, the time, distance and cost of movement among the mega cities of India will be considerably minimised.
Q. 3. Why did Sher Shah Suri build the Shahi (Royal) Road?
Ans. Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) Road from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley in Bengal to strengthen and consolidate his empire.
Q. 4. Which means of transport is extensively used to carry water, petroleum, natural gas and other liquids?
Ans. Pipelines are extensively used to carry water, petroleum, natural gas and other liquids for uninterrupted flow.
Q. 5. State the functions of ‘Border Road Organisation (BRO)’.
Ans. The main functions of BRO are:
(i) In peace
(a) To develop and maintain the operational road infrastructure of general staff in the border areas.
(b) To contribute to the socio-economic development of the border states.
(ii) In war
(a) To develop and maintain roads to keep line of control through in original sectors and redeployed sectors.
(b) To execute additional tasks as laid down by the government contributing to the war effort.
Q. 6. State the main functions of ‘National Highways Authority of India’ (NHAI).
Ans. Main functions of NHAI are:
(i) Development of the National Highways across India.
(ii) Maintain the National Highways and ensure the safety.
Q. 7. Name the railway line that was constructed between Roha in Maharashtra and Mangalore in Karnataka.
Ans. Konkan Railway.
Q. 8. What are ‘National Highways’?
Ans. The National Highways are the network of highways that is managed and maintained by agencies of the Government of India.
Q. 9. Which authority looks after the responsibility of development, maintenance and operation of National Highways.
Ans. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI).
Q. 10. What is the major function of the National Highways Authority of India?
Ans. Major function of the National Highways Authority of India is: Operation, maintenance and development of National Highways.
Q. 11. What is the total length of roads in India?
Ans. 33.1 lakh kms.
Q. 12. Which is the longest National Highway of India?
Ans. National Highway No. 7 (Varanasi to Kanyakumari).
Q. 13. Name the terminal stations of East West Corridor.
Ans. Silchar and Porbandar.
Q. 14. What are the major features of the Konkan Railways?
Ans. Features of the Konkan Railways:
(i) One of the achievements of Indian Railways.
(ii) It is 760 km long.
(iii) It crosses 146 rivers, 2000 bridges approximately and 91 tunnels.
(iv) Asia’s largest tunnel lies in this route.
(v) It connects Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka.
Q. 15. Describe any three advantages of pipelines as a means of transport in India.
Explain the main features of pipeline transport also give two examples.
Ans. Advantages of pipelines as a means of transport in India are:
(i) It is safe and reliable mode of transport system.
(ii) It is an economical and dependable mode of transport system particularly to the sensitive and strategic areas.
(iii) It provides a long-term infrastructural option.
Q. 16. Explain any three characteristics of the ‘State Highways’ in India.
Ans. Three characteristics of the State Highways in India are:
(i) These are constructed and maintained by the state governments.
(ii) They join the state capitals with district headquarters and other important towns. These roads are connected to the National Highways.
(iii) These constitute 4 per cent of total road length in the country.
Q. 17. Which activity does transportation convey? Name three major modes of transportation.
Ans. Transportation conveys the activities of transportation such as the items for daily consumption are brought from the site of production to the market, which makes them available to the consumer.
The modes of transport are:
(i) Land: Land transport includes road, railway and pipeline.
(ii) Water: Water transport includes inland waterways and seaways and oceanic routes.
(iii) Air: Air transport includes national as well as international flights.
Q.18. Why is road transport gaining more importance over rail transport? Explain.
Ans. Road transport is gaining more importance over rail transport because:
(i) Construction of roads is cheaper in comparison with railways.
(ii) Roads can be constructed even on hilly surface.
(iii) Roads provide door-to-door service while railways do not.
Q. 19. Which are the different railway gauges in India?
Ans. There are three railway gauges in India:
(i) Broad Gauge: The distance between two lines is – 1.676 m.
(ii) Metre Gauge: The distance between two lines is – 1.00 m.
(iii) Narrow Gauge: The distance between two lines is – 0.762 m.
Q. 20. How many types of waterways are found in India?
Ans. The water transport is of two types– (a) inland waterways, and (b) oceanic waterways.
Q. 21. Why was the Inland Waterways Authority of India set up?
Ans. For the development, maintenance and regulation of national waterways in the country, the Inland Waterways Authority was set up in 1986.
Q. 22. Name the boat race that is held in the backwaters of Kerala.
Ans. The famous Nehru Trophy Boat Race (VALLAMKALI) is held in the backwaters.
Q. 23. How do oceanic routes play an important role in the transport sector of India?
Ans. Oceanic routes play an important role in the transport sector of India’s economy. Approximately, 95 per cent of India’s foreign trade by volume and 70 per cent by value moves through ocean routes.
Q. 24. What is the importance of backwaters of Kerala?
Ans. The backwaters (Kadal) of Kerala has special significance in Inland Waterways. Apart from providing cheap means of transport, they are also attracting large number of tourists in Kerala. The famous Nehru Trophy Boat Race (VALLAMKALI) is also held in the backwaters.
Q. 25. Describe the three advantages of water transport in India.
Ans. (i) It does not require the construction of routes. Because it is naturally built. Requirement of construction is nominal in comparison to other sources of transportation.
(ii) Entire world is linked up with this medium.
(iii) The cost of transportation is lower in comparison to other modes.
Q. 26. What are the characteristics of water transport?
Ans. Characteristics of water transport:
(i) Water transport does not require route construction.
(ii) The oceans are linked with each other.
(iii) The oceans are negotiable with ships of various sizes.
(iv) It is much cheaper.
(v) The energy cost of water transportation is lower.
Q. 27. Write a note on the National Waterways of India.
Ans. National Waterways of India:
(i) NW 1: Allahabad-Haldia stretch (1,620 km). It is one of the most important waterways in India, which is navigable by mechanical boats up to Patna and by ordinary boats up to Haridwar. It is divided into three parts for developmental purposes– (i) HaldiaFarakka (560 km), (ii) Farakka-Patna (460 km), (iii) Patna-Allahabad (600 km).
(ii) NW 2: Sadiya-Dhubri stretch (891 km).Brahmaputra is navigable by steamers up to Dibrugarh (1,384 km) which is shared by India and Bangladesh.
(iii) NW 3: Kottapuram-Kollam stretch (205 km). It includes 168 km of west coast canal along with Champakara canal (23 km) and Udyogamandal canal (14 km).
Q. 28. What is Open House Policy?
Ans. To help the Indian exporters and make their export more competitive, the government had introduced an Open Sky Policy for cargo in April 1992. Under this policy, foreign airlines or association of exporters can bring any freighters to the country.
Q. 29. Write a brief history of air transport in India.
Ans. Air transport in India made a beginning in 1911 when airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini.
Q. 30. Which organisation is responsible for the safety of air transport in India?
Ans. The Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian Air Space.
Q. 31. Name the two corporations that manage the air transport in India.
Ans. The air transport in India was managed by two corporations, Air India and Indian Airlines after nationalisation.
Q. 32. Name the air service which is widely used in the hilly areas of the north-eastern sector of India.
Ans. Pawan Hans.
Q. 33. How many airports does the Airport Authority of India manages?
Ans. The authority manages 126 airports including 11 international, 86 domestic and 29 civil enclaves at defence air fields.
Q. 34. What are the advantages of air transport?
Ans. (i) Air transport is the fastest means of movement from one place to the other.
(ii) It has reduced distances by minimising the travel time.
(iii) It is very essential for a vast country like India, where distances are large and the terrain and climatic conditions are diverse.
Q. 35. Write a note on Air India.
Ans. (i) Air India provides international air service for both passengers and cargo traffic. (ii) It connects all the continents of the world through its services. In 2005, it carried 12.2 million passengers and 4.8 lakh metric tonnes of cargo.
(iii) About 52 per cent of the total air traffic was handled only at Mumbai and Delhi airports.
Q. 36. Discuss the contribution of Air India and Indian Airlines in the air transport of India.
Ans. Contribution of Air India and Indian Airlines in the air transport of India:
(i) Air India provides international air services for both passengers and cargo traffic.
(ii) It connects all the continents of the world through its services.
(iii) The country’s largest state-owned domestic carrier, Indian Airlines connects all the states of India and is widely used in domestic passenger as well as cargo transportation.
Q. 37. What is mass communication?
Ans. It is the communication among masses.
Q. 38. What is personal communication?
Ans. It is the communication between person to person.
Q. 39. Name the two means of mass communication used in todays world.
Ans. The two means of mass communication used in todays world are:
(i) Personal Communication.
(ii) Mass Communication.
Q. 40. Give any two examples of personal communication.
Ans. Letters, e-mails, telephone, SMSs, etc.
Q. 41. Give any two examples of mass communication.
Ans. Radio, television, newspapers, books, magazines, etc.
Q. 42. In how many groups can the satellite system in India can be grouped?
Ans. On the basis of configuration and purposes, satellite system in India can be grouped into two: Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) and Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System (IRS).
Q. 43. Describe any three advantages of satellite communication in India.
Ans. (i) It is used for weather forecast and monitoring natural calamities.
(ii) It is used for border surveillance.
(iii) It makes communication faster.
Q. 44. Explain the significance of internet services in the field of personal communication system in India.
Ans. In India among all personal communications, internet services play a significant role. It enables the user to establish the direct contact through e-mail to get access to the world of knowledge and information. Its demand is increasing dayby-day for e-commerce and carrying out money transaction. The internet is a huge central warehouse of data, with detailed information on various items, which enables the basic facilities of direct communication at very low cost.
Q. 45. Distinguish between personal and mass communication.
Q. 46. What do you mean by ‘communication?’
Ans. Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange information, news, ideas, and feelings but also create and share meaning. In general, communication is a means of connecting people or places. In business, it is a key function of management. An organisation cannot operate without communication between levels, department and employees.
Communication can be of many types:
(i) Verbal communication
(ii) Written communication
(iii) Non-verbal communication.