Q. 1. How the towns were often defined in opposition to rural areas during Pre-Colonial times? Give any two difference.
Ans. Towns were considered as opposites to rural areas. In the rural side, people indulged in activities like cultivating land, foraging in forest and rearing animals. Towns represent specific forms of economic activities and cultures and by contrast were inhabited by artisans, traders, administrators and rulers. Towns dominated the rural population, thriving on the surplus taxes from agriculture. Towns were fortified from rural, symbolising their separation from the countryside.
Q. 2. Explain the difference between town and countryside in Pre-Colonial period briefly.
Ans. Towns were quite different from the rural areas.
The main differences were: In the rural areas, people cultivated land, foraged in the forest and reared animals. On the other hand, towns were characterised by specific forms of economic activities and cultures. In rural areas, farmers and peasants lived. While in the towns, artisans, traders, rulers and administrators lived. Towns and cities were fortified by walls but the rural areas were not fortified.
Q. 3. Explain how the conversion of Census data into convenient statistical data by the British in India riddled with ambiguities in the late nineteenth century.
Ans. The Census Commissioners made categories for classifying different sections of the population. However, this classification was usually arbitrary and failed to hold the fraud and overlapping identities of people. For example, how can a person who is both a trader and a cultivator be classified? Moreover people at many instances refused to cooperate or gave evasive answers.
Q. 4. Why was the Colonial Government keen on mapping of Indian cities from the early years? Give any two reasons.
Ans. The Colonial Government felt that maps were essential to understand the landscape and know the topography. This knowledge of mapping would allow better control over the region. The maps provided with various important information. With the growth of towns, maps were prepared not for the development of the towns only but also for commerce and to consolidate their power.
Q. 5.Analyse how the introduction of the Railways by the British proved advantageous for the Indians in the late nineteenth century.
Ans. The introduction of the railways changed the scope and area of economic activities for traditional towns to new cities which were linked to railways. The countryside from where raw materials and labour were drawn became linked to these railway cities. With the expansion, railways network, Railway Workshops and Railway Colonies were established. Social and economic life improved to a large extent.
Q.6. Mention two changes that were seen in the network of trade in the urban centres from the mid-18th century.
Ans. Traders migrated from the Old Mughal Centres to new Centres in search of work and patronage. Importance of Commercial Centres like Dhaka, Surat, etc. declined when trade shifted to other places. As the British were gaining power and the East India Company expanded Colonial Port Cities, Madras, Calcutta and Bombay developed and people came to these cities in large numbers in search of jobs.
Q. 7. Explain the changes that came in the eighteenth century in towns, established by Mughals.
Describe briefly the changes that came in towns from the mid-18th century onwards.
Ans. By the middle of 18th century, there was a new phase of change. Commercial towns like Surat, Masulipatnam and Dhaka, which were growing in the 17th century, declined with the shift of trade to other places. After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the British gradually acquired political control and the trade of the English East India Company expanded. Colonial port cities like Madras, Calcutta and Bombay emerged as new economic capitals. These cities also emerged as the centres of the Colonial Administration and Political Power. New institutions and buildings were developed. Urbanisation developed and new occupations were created and people moved towards these colonial cities. By 1800, these three cities were the biggest cities in India from the population point of view.
Q. 8 . Why was the Colonial Government keen on mapping? Mention any two reasons.
Ans. Right from early years, the Colonial Government gave special emphasis on mapping, due to various reasons. Government believed that good maps were very much necessary to understand the landscape and know about topography. This knowledge would allow them to have better control over the region. When towns began to grow, maps were prepared to make plans for development of these towns. Maps were also prepared to develop commerce and consolidate power. Maps give information about the location of rivers, hills and vegetation, which was important for planning structures for Defence purposes. These maps also show the density and quality of houses and alignment of roads, location of ghats i.e. used to gauge commercial possibilities and even plan strategies of taxation.
Q. 9. “A careful study of Census reveals some fascinating trends of Urbanization in 19th century.” Support with facts.
Ans. A careful study of Census reveals some fascinating trends. After 1800, urbanisation in India was slow. Throughout the 19th century and up to the first two decades of the 20th century, the ratio of the urban population was very low and had remained stagnant. From 1900 to 1940, the urban population increased from 10% of the total population to about 13%. There were important variations in the patterns of urban development in different regions. The smaller towns had limited opportunity to grow economically. On the other hand, Calcutta, Madras and Bombay grew very fast and soon became sprawling cities. However, the growth of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay as the new Commercial and administrative Centres was at the expense of other existing urban centres. These cities became the hub of the Colonial Economy and the nature of the economic activity differed from these Colonial Cities to that of traditional towns and urban settlements.
Q.10. How did the changes occur in the building pattern of Colonial cities after the Revolt of 1857? Give any two examples.
Ans. The British felt that cities needed more protection and White people had to live in more secure and more segregated enclaves away from the threat of the natives. Pasture lands and agricultural fields around the older towns were cleared and new urban spaces, known as Civil Lines, were set up.
Q.11. Why were the Hill Stations important for the Colonial economy? Give any two reasons.
Ans. Tea and coffee plantations were set up in the Hill Stations. These plantations provided employment to the labour from the plains. It also meant that the Hill Stations were no longer a place for the elites only. With the settlement of the British and a place of rest for the army, Educational Institutions and recreational activities of the European style emerged.
Q.12. How were the Hill Stations a distinctive feature of Colonial Urban Development? Give two reasons.
Ans. Hill stations were a distinctive feature of the Colonial Urban Development. The establishments of Hill Stations were related with the needs of the British Army. Hill stations were developed as specific places for building troops, guarding frontiers and beginning campaigns against enemy rulers. It also developed as sanitarium, a place where soldiers rest and recover from illness. It also became the place for the British in summers.
Q.13.How did the Indian Hill Stations become racial enclave for the Europeans in the 19th century? Explain two reasons.
Ans. The Hill stations were established by the British as per needs of the British Army. Hill Stations became strategic places for building troops, guarding frontiers and launching campaigns against enemy rulers. Due to the cool climate, these Hill Stations became an attractive destination for the Europeans. The buildings including Churches and Educational institutions were built in European style.
Q.14. Mention two new transport facilities introduced in the new Colonial cities and also one important effect to it.
Ans. The introduction of Railways in 1853 changed the towns into good fortunes. It changed the outlook of the cities and connected the Colonial cities with the rest of India. With the expansion of the railway network, railway workshops and railway colonies were established. Railway towns like Jamalpur, Waltair and Bareilly developed. It also led to the development of the Ship Industry.
Q.15. Mention two fears of conservatives in introducing social changes in new cities built by the British.
Ans. Conservatives feared that the British will destroy their social and religious customs. There was a fear that they will be converted to Christianity unwillingly by the British. They also feared that educating women would threaten the basis of social order and turn the social world upside down.
Q.16. Point out one supportive and one conservative view on the opportunities provided to the Indian women in the Colonial cities.
Ans. Conservatives shown the opinion that the education of women would turn the world upside down and would threaten the basis of the social world. Women became visible in public life. They began to join new professions in the city as domestic and factory workers, teachers, theatre and film actresses. Even reformers, who supported women education, wanted them to stay at home.
Q.17. How did the Colonial cities reflect the Mercantile culture of the new rulers during the mid-19th century? Explain.
“Colonial cities in India largely reflected the trading culture of the British rulers.” Substantiate the statement.
Ans. The Colonial cities reflected the Mercantile culture of the rulers. Political power and patronage shifted from Indian rulers to the merchants of the East India Company. Indians who worked as middlemen, interpreters, traders and suppliers of good also had an important place in these new cities. Economic activity near the rivers or the sea led to the development of Docks and Ghats. Along the shore, were godowns, mercantile offices, insurance agencies for shipping, transport depots and banking establishment. Further inland was the Chief Administrative Office of the Company. The Writers’ Building in Calcutta was one such office. Around the periphery of the Fort, European merchants and agents built palatial houses in Europeans styles. Some built garden houses in the suburbs. Racially exclusive clubs, race courses and theatres were also built for the ruling elite.
Q.18. Explain why some Hill Stations were developed during the Colonial period in India.
Ans. Hill stations were a distinctive feature of colonial urban development.
(i) The founding and settling of Hill Stations was initially connected with the needs of the British Army such as Shimla, Mount Abu, and Darjeeling.
(ii) Hill Stations became strategic places for billeting troops, guarding frontiers and launching campaigns against enemy rulers.
(iii) The temperate and cool climate of the Indian hills was seen as an advantage, particularly since the British associated hot weather with epidemics. Cholera and Malaria were particularly feared and attempts were made to protect the Army from these diseases.
(iv) The overwhelming presence of the army made these stations a new kind of Cantonment in the hills.
(v) These hill stations were also developed as sanitariums, i.e., places where soldiers rest and recover from illnesses.
(vi) Hill stations became an attractive destination for the new rulers.
(vii) Viceroys usually visit Hill Stations during the summer months.
(viii) In the hill stations the British and other Europeans sought to recreate settlements that were reminiscent of home.
(ix) The buildings were deliberately built in the European style. Individual houses followed the pattern of detached villas and cottages set amidst gardens.
(x) Social calls, teas, picnics, fetes, races and visits to the theatre became common among Colonial Officials in the Hill stations.
(xi) The introduction of the railways made Hill Stations more accessible to a wide range of people including Indians.
(xii) Upper and middle-class Indians such as Maharajas, Lawyers and Merchants were drawn to these stations because they were capable as equivalent to ruling British Elite.
(xiii) Hill stations were important for the Colonial economy. With the setting up of tea and coffee plantations in the adjoining areas, an influx of immigrant labour from the plains began.
(xiv) Any other relevant point.
Q. 19.Name the fortification of East India Company in Madras. Mention any one feature of it.
Ans. Fort St. George was the name of the fortification of East India Company in Madras. It was built for protection. It became the important White Town where most Europeans lived. Colour and religion determined the living authority
Q. 20. Mention the two features of the Fort St. George of White Town, where most of the Europeans lived.
Ans. Fort St. George became the Centre of the White Town where most of the Europeans lived. Walls and bastions made this a distinct enclave. Colour and religion determined living authority within the Fort. The Company did not permit any marriages with the Indians. Alongwith the English, the Dutch and the Portuguese were allowed to stay in Fort St. George as they were Christians and Europeans. Judicial and Administrative System also preferred the White population.
Q. 21. Why did the British take the task of town planning upon themselves? Give any two reasons.
Ans. There were many reasons for the British to take up the responsibility of town planning from the early years of their rule in Bengal. The main reason was defence. In 1756, Siraj-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Bengal, attacked Calcutta. He sacked the Fort, which the British traders had built to store their goods. So, the traders of East India Company had always questioned the Sovereignty of Nawab. When Sirajudaula was defeated in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the East India Company decided to build a new Fort so that no force can attack easily.
Q. 22 . Name the region where the Lottery Committee initiated town planning during the 19th century. Mention any one feature.
Ans. During the 19th century, the Lottery Committee initiated town planning in Calcutta. It was named so, because funds were raised through lotteries from the public. The Lottery Committee Commissioned a new map of the city to get a broader picture of Calcutta. Its major work was road building and clearing of encroachments along the river banks.
Q.23 . Why did the British Colonial power import European style in Bombay’s architecture?
Ans. The buildings built were Europeans in style. This style created an atmosphere of familiarity for the British. When they saw buildings in European style, they would feel at home in an alien country. The British considered the European style would symbolise their superiority and the buildings will be seen as symbols of power and authority. They thought that the buildings would distinguish them from the Indians and pose as the Colonial Masters.
Q.24. Mention two characteristics of neo classical style of architecture for public buildings in India during the British period.
Ans. Indo was the short for Hindu and Saracen was the word used by Europeans to designate Muslims. By combining the Indian with the European style in public architecture, the British wanted to prove that they were legitimate rulers of India. This style had geometrical constructions with lofty pillars. This style can be seen of original Roman buildings.
Q.25. Mention two characteristics of Neo-Gothic style of architecture for public buildings.
State any two features of Neo-Gothic style of architecture.
Ans. The Neo-Gothic style of building had high pitched roofs, pointed arches and extensive decorations. During the medieval period, Churches in Northern Europe were constructed in this style. It was revived in the mid-nineteenth century in England. For example: Victoria Terminus in Bombay.
Q.26. Mention two characteristics of the Indo-Saracenic style of architecture for public buildings, during the British period.
Ans. It was a hybrid architecture style that developed in the beginning of the twentieth century. It combined the Indian style with the European. The British adopted this style as they felt inspired from the domes, chhatris, jalis and arches of the medieval buildings. The British integrated the Indian and European styles in public architecture. They did so to pose them as the legitimate rulers of India. For example: The Gateway of India.
Q.27. State any two steps taken by Lord Wellesley to clean up the city of Calcutta.
Ans. Steps taken by Lord Wellesley to clean up the city of Calcutta.
(i) Wellesley wrote a Minute (an administrative order) in 1803 on the need for town planning, and set up various committees for the purpose.
(ii) Many bazaars, ghats, burial grounds, and tanneries were cleared or removed.
Q. 28. Mention any two reasons for the British to take upon themselves the task of town planning in Bengal in the very beginning.
Ans. There were many reasons for the British taking upon the task of town-planning in Bengal. The British adopted the task of town –planning as they needed defence against local rulers. Siraj-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Bengal, attacked Calcutta in 1756 and sacked the small Fort built by the English to keep their goods. The Traders of the East India Company always questioned the sovereignty of the Nawab and were not ready to pay customs duties. So, Sirajud-Daula wanted to assert his authority but was defeated in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. So, East India Company decided to build a new Fort, which could not be attacked easily and was called as Fort William.
Q. 29. Explain the growth and development of Bombay during Colonial Era.
Ans. Bombay was initially seven islands. As the population grew, the islands were joined to create more space and they gradually fused into one big city. Bombay was the Commercial capital of Colonial India. As the premier port on the western coast it was the Centre of International Trade. By the end of the nineteenth century, half the imports and exports of India passed through Bombay. One important item of this trade was Opium that the East India Company exported to China. Indian merchants and middlemen supplied and participated in this trade and they helped to integrate Bombay’s economy directly to Malwa, Rajasthan and Sind where Opium was grown. This collaboration with the Company was profitable and led to the growth of an Indian Capitalist class. Bombay’s Capitalists came from diverse communities such as Parsi, Marwari, Konkani Muslim, Gujarati Bania, Bohra, Jew and Armenian. When the American Civil War started in 1861 cotton from the American South stopped coming into the International market. This led to an upsurge of demand for Indian cotton, grown primarily in the Deccan. Once again Indian merchants and middlemen found an opportunity for earning huge profits. In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened and this further strengthened Bombay’s links with the world economy. The government and Indian merchants used this opportunity to declare Bombay Urbs Prima in Indis, a Latin phrase meaning the most important city of India. By the late nineteenth century Indian merchants in Bombay were investing their wealth in new ventures such as cotton mills. They also patronised building activity in the city. As Bombay’s economy grew, from the mid-nineteenth century there was a need to expand railways and shipping and develop the administrative structure. Many new buildings were constructed at this time.