Very Short Question With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give meaning of Observation.
Ans. Observation is an English word. The meaning of Observation is to know about mutual causal effects to observe minutely the naturally occurring phenomena. According to P.V. Young, “Observation is the objective study with eyes which can be used as a method of mintue study of different units of making collective behaviour and complex social institutions and as a data collector.”
Q. 2. Give characteristics of Observation.
Ans. (i) Observation is a main method in collection of primary data about any phenomena in social research.
(ii) In this method, there is no need for research to depend upon any one for the collection of data. In fact he uses his sense with which the facts become reliable.
Q. 3. How many types of Observations are there?
Ans. Observation has the following types:
1. (a) Participant Observation.
(b) Non-Participant Observation.
(c) Half Participant Observation.
2. (a) Uncontrolled Observation.
(b) Controlled Observation.
Q. 4. Give literal meaning of word ‘Survey’.
Ans. Word Survey is an English word which is made up of ‘Sur’ or ‘Sar’ and ‘Veeir’ or ‘Veoir’. Meaning of ‘Sur’ is ‘Up’ and meaning of ‘Veeir’ is to see. In this way meaning of Survey is to see an event from upside or to observe from outside.
Q. 5. What is Survey Method?
Ans. Meaning of Survey method is by that research method in which researcher goes at the place where event occured and observes the event in scientific way. In this way he does research about that event.
Q. 6. What are the objectives of Survey method?
Ans. (i) In survey method, researcher comes in direct contact with the event with which he gets practical information.
(ii) This method helps in checking of earlier theories made in society.
(iii) This method also helps in examining earlier made hypothesis.
Q. 7. What is Interview Method?
Ans. By interview we mean by the direct and formal conversation with that person who has any type of direct contact or relation with any specific phenomena. Conversation could be done with a specific objective and is limited to a pre-determined area. But conversation is done in an open, good and independent atmosphere.
Q. 8. Give two objectives of Interview.
Ans. (i) First objective of interview is to obtain that information from related person which could not be obtained from any other source.
(ii) Second objective is to find that how a person behaves in a specific atmosphere. For this, researcher takes care of facial expressions of the respondent at the time of interview.
Q. 9. Give types of Interview.
Ans. Interview is of four types:
(i) Structured Interview
(ii) Unstructured Interview
(iii) Focussed Interview
(iv) Repetitive Interview.
Q. 10. What do you mean by Field Work?
Ans. Field work is a method of getting information about people by living with people of that area. In this, researcher himself lives within the concerned area, becomes a part of group and collects information. In the end he draw conclusions. In this way it is a method of doing work by going in the field.
Q. 11. What is Participant Observation?
Ans. Participant observation is also a type of field work in which researcher, in many ways, become a part of the group. Yet he hardly takes part in all the activities of group but still he remains there as a member of the group. While taking part in group activities he observes them and collects the required information.
Q. 12. What is the importance of Geneology for an Anthropologist?
Ans. Geneology is of great importance for Anthropologist or an Ethnographer. He can get each and every information of family from this picture. If the pictures would be given in this chart then very easy information could be obtained and of family also.
Q. 13. Who is Informant or Principal Informant or Native Informant?
Ans. Informant is that person who gives every information of area and community to the researcher. Information acts as a teacher for the ethnographer who plays a very important role in whole of the field work. He is also known as the native informant.
Q. 14. Give two definitions of Survey Method.
Ans. (i) According to H.N. Morse, “The survey is in briefly a method of analyses in scientific and orderly form for defined purpose of a given social situation or problem or population.
(ii) According to A.F. Wells, “A social survey is a fact finding study dealing chiefly with working-class poverty and with the nature and problems of community.”
Q. 15. How many classes Moser has given about subject matter of social survey?
Ans. Moser has given four classes about subject matter of social survey:
(i) Demographic Characteristics.
(ii) Social environment.
(iii) Social activities.
(iv) Opinions, attitudes.
Short Question With Answer (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. What is Participant Observation?
Ans. For Participant Observation it is necessary that the researcher should not live in a group like a stranger but should live as a part of group and observe it. Here it is not compulsory that he should take part in all the activities of group but definitely he does not live as a researcher. His functional contact of nearness is necessary with the group. It means that he should take part in the activities of group and should observe the activities of the group till that time until he will not be able to collect necessary information. In this because of nearness with the group he can observe it very easily and minutely. According to P.V. Young participant observer lives in the group to be observed or take part in its life.
Q. 2. Give merits of Participant Observation.
Ans. (i) In this the researcher comes very close to the group with which he gets a chance to observe it very deeply and minutely.
(ii) In Participant Observation, researcher gets the power to understand the real importance of different behaviours, their relations and customs of the group.
(iii) Participant observation is possible in natural conditions. When people come to know that they are being observed, their behaviour becomes artificial but in participant observation it is not so.
(iv) In Participant observation, researcher hardly works as an examiner but lives as a member of the group which makes the work of observation easy.
(v) With this method the researcher finds even minute things from a big phenomena.
Q. 3. Give demerits of Participant Observation.
Ans. (i) In this, the researcher has to play two roles at the given time. On one side he is a researcher and on the other side he is the member of a group. It is very difficult to maintain a balance among both the roles.
(ii) When researcher starts to like the group then objectivity of observation will come to an end. Instead of researcher, he thinks himself as a member of the group with which the scientific outlook will be finished and he starts to take most of the phenomena very casually.
(iii) Because of his closeness of the actions of group, he leaves many phenomena of the group without observing and it can affect the research.
(iv) When any stranger starts to live in the group then some artificialness can come in the behaviour of the people because of which we cannot get exact information.
(v) Researcher cannot stay away from the group and increases his contacts with the group with which scientificness of observer will come to an end.
Q. 4. What is meant by Non-Participant Observation?
Ans. When researcher observes only as a scientist and with objectivity, it is called non participant observation. In such research, the place of researcher is only as an observer. He observes the activities of the group by living away or by keeping itself away from the group. This generally happens in experimental observation like while doing job in mills, observer observes the activities of different labourers, their physical behaviour and notes down their activities.
Q. 5. What do you mean by Half-Participant Observation?
Ans. In experimental researches, non-participant observation is possible but in the study of social group this is not possible. In this, no one can imagine a state when the researcher will remain everywhere but will not take part in any of the activities. This is very difficult. But with this, participant observation is not correct from scientific point of view. That’s why scholars have imagined one state when research will take part in some of the general activities but will remain objective from others and studies with objectivity. This state is known as half-participant observation.
Q. 6. What is meant by Non-Controlled Observation?
Ans. Observation can be controlled or non-controlled. When we observe any phenomena in its natural form and at its natural place then it is known as non controlled observation. In this type of observation there is no control of observer on phenomena. This is the early form of observation. During the early times of science, different sciences have observed different phenomena in their natural forms and drawn many conclusions. Specially in Biology and Astrology, this observation was used. The early form of observation of social phenomena was non-controlled. Many scientists had drawn conclusions by observing different natural phenomena in their natural surroundings.
Q. 7. What do you mean by controlled observation?
Ans. With the progress in social sciences, its methodologies have also made great progress. Now controlled observation is possible. It is of two types—control on social phenomena and control on the observation work. When social phenomena is occurred artificially and observer observes it in different conditions then it is known as control on social phenomena. Some times phenomena could not occur artificially then observer keeps control on himself so that the observation could be made possible. Shortcomings in this could be removed by making observation plan, and with use of machines.
Q. 8. What is meant by structured interview?
Ans. Structured Interview is also known as directed or planned interview. This types of interview is used in Schedule method. All processes and actions right from the start till the end are definite and the research worker has to proceed according to pre-determined sequence. Whatever information he needs, the questions and their sequence is already given in the schedule. This type of interview is generally in the form of question-answers.
Q. 9. What do you mean by unstructured interview?
Ans. Unstructured Interview can also be called as open, independent and story type interview. In this, there is no definite question like schedule. Researcher only directs him for a subject and the respondent explains the related phenomena, thoughts, reactions in the form of a story. It can be done in an independent conversation. There is complete independence of asking questions, explanation of phenomena and feelings. Interview is not structured but is completely independent. Yet the researcher can ask extra questions to get full knowledge of phenomena and will try to keep the interest of respondent in interview. This type of unstructured interview is used for psychological studies.
Q. 10. What is meant by the focussed interview?
Ans. This type of interview is used generally to know the effect of means of mass communication like radio or film. In this, it is necessary that the respondent must have kept relation with the subject. In this way interview is in the form of independent explanation and the respondent has complete freedom to explain the phenomena. That’s why, it is just like an independent interview.” P.V. Young has written about focussed interview to clear its objectives. She has written that, “Its aim is to determine the way of verification of its hypothesis which has been taken from already studied conditions of human behaviour. Interview is also useful for those studies from where we can get help to clear complete answers about known conditions. They are trying to get new answers.”
Q. 11. What do you mean by repeative interview?
Ans. This type of interview is used when we have to study the effects of any social or psychological process. The effects of many social phenomena lasts for a very long time. That’s why, when we have to know about the effect of time factor then the one time interview is not enough. This type of interview is used generally with observation method. For example, if the government makes any road or railway line and connects it directly with any big city then definitely it will affect the social life of people of village, their mutual relations, their education, their ways of living etc. Actually in any social change enough time is required and in this type of interview researcher has to go for interview many times so that he can come to know about effects or changes of any phenomena.
Q. 12. What is interview guide?
Ans. Interview Guide is the written document in which the brief description of interview planning is given. In this, method of interview, related subject and necessary directions for specific circumstances are given. In this, definitions and meaning of different units are also given so that meaning of different units could remain the same. In this way in Interview guide, necessary directions and information related to subject is given so that the interviewer could not move away from the subject.
Q. 13. What is the importance of interview guide?
Ans. (i) If interview guide is available then there is no possibility of leaving any aspect of subject in the interview.
(ii) With this guide, there is no need for researcher to give more stress on his brain as everything is available in written. If it will not be available then there is a possibility of leaving any aspect of the subject.
(iii) It helps in bringing uniformity in taking interview of different people and then it is possible to compare the collected information.
Q. 14. What is the difference between field work of sociology and ethnography?
Ans. (i) In Sociology, there is no need for researcher to leave his group, instead he lives in the group to do field work. But ethnographist moves away from his group and does his field work at distant place.
(ii) Sociologist does field work in every type of community but ethnographist does field work only in groups of ancient cultures.
(iii) Ethnographist is required to live in the community which are to be studied but sociologists hardly live overthere. Instead they does their work very quickly.
Q. 15. Which problems are faced in field work of sociology?
Ans. (i) Sociologists are required to live in their group to do field work and members of he group are generally literate person. It is quite possible that some of them could read the report of research work and then problem can come in field work.
(ii) If people would come to know that anybody living with them is observing then their behaviour could become artificial and which leads to problems in field work.
(iii) When any one observes his own community and people are very much aware about his work. In this way bias can come in his work.