Q. 1. Define the term ‘settlement’.
Give the meaning of human settlement.
Ans. A cluster of houses where people live is called settlement.
Q. 2. Name the two types of major settlements.
Ans. Two major types of settlements:
(i) Compact settlement
(ii) Dispersed settlement
Q. 3. Write any two features of rectangular pattern of rural settlement.
Ans. Features of rectangular settlement:
(i) Roads cut each other at right angle.
(ii) They are found in plains and valleys.
Q. 4. Write any two features of compact pattern of rural settlement.
Ans. (i) Compact settlements are largely found in plain areas.
(ii) In such settlements, houses are built close to one another creating narrow lanes.
Q. 5. Write any two features of star like pattern of rural settlement.
Ans. (i) Star-like pattern is found in those areas which are plain or a valley.
(ii) Few houses may be in cluster but generally the settlements are spaced apart often interspersed with fields.
Q. 6. Mention any two characteristics of sub-urbanisation.
Ans. Characteristics of sub-urbanisation:
(i) People move away from congested urban areas to cleaner areas outside the city.
(ii) Everyday thousands of people commute from their homes in the suburbs to their workplaces in the city.
Q. 7. Study the diagrams given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
(1) Identify and name the rural settlement patterns in the above given diagrams shown as (A) and (B).
(2) Write one feature of each rural settlement patterns.
Ans. (1) Rural settlement patterns:
(A) Linear Pattern
(B) Circular Pattern
Linear Pattern: Houses are located along the road/ railway line/river/canal/edge of a valley/along a levee.
Circular Pattern: Circular villages develop along lakes/tanks/around an open area which is used for keeping animals to protect them from wild animals.
Q. 8. ‘There is no consensus on what exactly defines a village or town because different countries have different parameters.’ Explain.
Ans. It is true that there is no consensus on what exactly defines a village or town because different countries have different parameters as:
(i) Population size
(ii) Occupational structure
(v) Functions of urban centres
Q. 9. Study the diagram given below and answer the questions that follow:
1. Identify and name the given rural settlement pattern.
2. In which type of areas do we find such type of settlement patterns?
3. Give an important characteristic of this type of settlement pattern.
Ans. 1. Cross–shaped/Rectangular
2. They are found in plain areas where roads and railways cut each other at about right angle.
3. The houses are built:
(i) Side by side
(ii) In a compact fashion
(iii) They are specific to plains and valleys.
Q. 10. Study the diagram given below and answer the questions that follow:
1. Identify and name the pattern of settlement.
2. In which areas do we find such rural settlement patterns?
3. Give one feature characteristics of this type of settlement pattern
Ans. 1. Star–like pattern
2. Largely in plains and valleys
3. The settlement takes place along all the roads that converge at a point.
Q. 11. Differentiate between rural and urban settlements in the world.
Ans. (i) Rural settlements depend upon primary economic activities whereas urban settlement depends upon secondary and tertiary sectors of economy.
(ii) Rural settlements produces food grains and raw materials. Urban settlements give goods or services to others.
(iii) Rural settlements are small in size and sparsely located. Urban settlements are fewer but of large size.
Q.12. Distinguish between site and situation.
Q.13. How would you justify the study of human settlements in human geography?
Ans. The study of settlement is essential and basic to human geography because the form of settlement in any particular region reflects the human relationship with the environment.
A settlement or a place of dwelling is commonly identified as a village or a town or a city.
Q. 14. What is a healthy city? Explain its basic features.
Ans. World Health Organisation suggests that a healthy city must have :
(i) A clean and safe environment.
(ii) Meets the basic needs of all its inhabitants.
(iii) Involves the community in local government.
(iv) Provides easily accessible health service.
Q. 15. Write a note of Addis Ababa.
Ans. Addis means New and Ababa means Flower. This capital city of Ethiopia is often called the New Flower. It was established in 1878. It is located on a hill-valley topography. A new airport known as Bole Airport has also been constructed. This multifunctional city is located in the centre of Ethiopia and grown rapidly in the recent past.
Q. 16. Define the term ‘Conurbation.’
Ans. The term conurbation applies to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of originally separate towns or cities.
Q. 17. Define the term ‘Metropolitan City.’
Ans. It can be defined as the city having a population of one million and above.
Q. 18. Why are the towns and cities growing?
Ans. The towns and cities are growing due to natural increase in population and also due to migration of rural people to the cities in search of jobs.
Q. 19. Name three factors on the basis of which the village are separated from town?
Ans. Functional contrasts between towns and villages may not always be clear-cut, but specific functions such as, manufacturing, retail and wholesale trade, and professional services exist only in towns and not in the villages. This is what differentiates a town from a village.
Q. 20. Which was the first million city in the world?
Q. 21. Name the country with 100% urban population?
Q. 22. Study the table given below and answer the questions that follow: Continent-wise Distribution of Million Cities
1. Name the two continents which have shown the highest growth rate of million cities from 1950 to 2000.
2. What could have been the reason for such a growth of million cities?
3. Give the meaning of a ‘million city.’
Ans. 1. (a) Africa
2. Migration of people in large numbers from rural areas to urban areas mainly in big cities.
3. The city which has one million or more population is known as ‘Million City.’
Q. 23. Study the table given below and answer the questions that follow : Continent- wise Distribution of Million Cities
1. Name the two continents which have shown lowest growth rate of million cities as compared to others.
2. What reasons will you assign for this growth rate?
3. Give the meaning of a ‘mega city.’
Ans. (1) Australia and Europe.
(2) (i) Growth rate of population is slow.
(ii) Migration from rural to urban is slow.
(3) A mega city or megalopolis is a general term for cities together with their suburbs with a population of more than 10 million people.
Q. 24. The table given below and answer the questions that follow:
Continent- wise Distribution of Million Cities
1. Name the two continents, one with highest growth rate and the other with lowest growth rate of million cities.
2. Why is the number of million cities increasing in the world?
3. Give the meaning of ‘conurbation.’
Ans. 1. (a) Highest growth rate: Asia; (b) Lowest growth rate: Australia
2. The number of million cities are increasing in the world due to rapid increase in urban population. The urban population of the world has grown rapidly from 746 million in 1950 to 3.9 billion in 2014. This has resulted in rapid urbanisation resulting in a growing number of mega cities in the world. By 2030, the world is projected to have 41 mega cities with 10 million inhabitants or more.
3. The term ‘conurbation’ was coined by Patrick Geddes in 1915 and applies to a large area of urban development that results from the merging or originally separate towns or cities, e.g., Greater London.
Q. 25. Explain with examples the ‘population size’ criteria used by most countries to define urban area.
“The criteria for differentiating rural and urban population varies from country to country.” Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. The lower limit of the population size for a settlement to be designated as urban in different countries are:
(i) It is 1500 in Colombia
(ii) 2000 in Argentina and Portugal
(iii) 5000 in India
(iv) 30,000 in Japan
(v) In Denmark, Sweden and Finland, all places with a population size of 250 persons are called urban.
(vi) The minimum population size for a city is 300 in Iceland.
(vii) In Canada and Venezuela, it is 1000 persons.
Q. 26. Mention any two factors which force people to shift from rural areas to urban areas?
Ans. (i) The decreasing employment opportunities in the rural as well as smaller urban areas of the developing countries consistently push the population to the urban areas. ½
(ii) The available educational and health facilities remain beyond the reach of the urban poor.
Q. 27. Name any two social ills that cities in developing countries suffer.
Ans. (i) Insufficient financial resources fail to create adequate social infrastructure catering to the basic needs of the huge population.
(ii) Lack of employment and education tends to aggravate the crime rates.
Q. 28. Explain any three major problems of rural settlements in the developing countries.
Ans. Major problems of rural settlements in the developing countries :
(i) Supply of water is inadequate.
(ii) Water-borne diseases such as Cholera and Jaundice are common.
(iii) Problem of toilets and garbage disposal causes health problems.
(iv) Frequent droughts and floods.
(v) Houses made of mud, wood and thatch remain susceptible to damage due to heavy rains and floods.
(vi) Unmetalled roads.
(vii) Lack of modern network of communication.
(i) Supply of water is inadequate: Supply of water to rural settlements in developing countries is not adequate. People in villages, particularly in mountainous and arid areas have to walk long distances to fetch drinking water.
(ii) Water-borne diseases such as Cholera and Jaundice are common: The outbreak of water-borne diseases is very common in rural settlements in developing nations.
(iii) Problem of toilets and garbage disposal causes health problems: The general absence of toilet and garbage disposal facilities cause health- related problems.
(iv) Frequent droughts and floods: The rural settlements face the problems of frequent droughts and floods as such settlements lack basic welfare facilities.
(v) Houses made of mud, wood and thatch remain susceptible to damage due to heavy rains and floods: The design and use of building materials of houses vary from one ecological region to another. The houses made up of mud, wood and thatch, remain susceptible to damage during heavy rains and floods and require proper maintenance every year.
(vi) Unmetalled roads: Lack of metalled roads create a lot of transportation problems.
(vii) Lack of modern network of communication: Lack of modern network of communication leads to various problems such as connecting to other part of the world, etc.
Q. 29. Discuss the problems associated with urban settlements in developing countries.
Ans. (i) Poor hygienic conditions of living
(ii) Lack of basic amenities
(iii) Development of slums
(iv) Unorganized growth of city
(i) Poor hygienic conditions of living: The large urban population in developing countries not only uses but disposes off a huge quantity of water and all types of waste materials inappropriately.
(ii) Lack of basic amenities: An improper sewerage system creates unhealthy condition. Massive use of traditional fuel in the domestic as well as the industrial sector severely pollutes the air.
(iii) Development of slums: The sudden gush of population to urban areas leads to the development of slum areas.
(iv) Unorganized growth of city: The enormous migrant population generates unorganized growth of the city.