Very Short Questions With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Which concepts are given by Karl Marx to Sociology?
Ans. Karl Marx gave many concepts to Sociology which include Dialectical materialism, Historical materialism, Social change, Alienation, Surplus value, Socialism etc.
Q. 2. Which two classes are given by Karl Marx?
Ans. According to Karl Marx, there are two classes in society—Capitalist and Labour class. Capitalist class is that class which owns means of production and which exploits the labour class with the help of his wealth. Labour class is that class which don’t have means of production and which sells its labour to earn its livelihood.
Q. 3. Give the meaning of Socialism.
Ans. According to Marx, one time will come when labour class will start revolution against capitalism and will throw away its authority. System of labour class will be established and there will be no class in the society. Every one will get according to his ability and society will control the means of production. This is a socialism.
Q. 4. What is Class Struggle?
Ans. Marx was of the view that two opposing classes of capitalists and labourers are there in society. First class exploits the second class with the help of its resources and second class wants to earn more to give a good life to its family. That’s why conflict is always there between both the classes which is known as ‘class struggle’.
Q. 5. Give names of three books written by Karl Marx.
Ans. (i) The Holy Family—1845
(ii) Communist Manifesto—1848
(iii) The Class Struggle in France—1850
(iv) Das Capital (1st part)—1867
Q. 6. Give definition of Sociology given by Durkheim.
Ans. According to Durkheim, ‘‘Sociology is the science of social institutions, their genesis and development.’’
Q. 7. Give definition of Social Facts given by Durkheim.
Ans. According to Durkheim, ‘‘Social facts are those ways of thinking, doing work and feel which has the special characteristics to maintain its existence exterior to the individual consciousness.’’
Q. 8. Give two characteristics of Social Fact.
Ans. (i) Social facts are exterior to humans and they do not belong to any specific person but they belong to whole of the society.
(ii) Second feature of social fact is the constraint means they exert impact of constraint on humans.
Q. 9. Give meaning of Suicide given by Durkheim.
Ans. According to Durkheim, ‘‘The word Suicide is used for all those deaths which are the direct or indirect results of any function of dead person about which he himself knows that this act will cause death to him.’’
Q. 10. Give types of suicide given by Durkheim.
Ans. Durkheim has given three types of suicide and these are:
(i) Egoistic Suicide
(ii) Altruistic Suicide
(iii) Anomic Suicide
Short Questions With Answer (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. What is class according to Marx?
Ans. Marx has not given any definition of class anywhere but on the basis of his writings Lenin has given definition of the class. So according to Lenin, ‘‘Classes are known as big groups of those people who in any level of history of social production from the view of their place, from the view of their relation with the means of production, from the view of hard work and their role in social structure and because of which they are the owner of that much part of the social property, are different from each other from the view of quantity and from the view of achieving it.’’
Q. 2. What is Class Struggle.
Ans. Karl Marx has studied two classes in each society. According to him, in every society, two opposite classes are there. One who exploits and other who is exploited by first one and there is always a struggle between them. To this struggle Marx has given the name of Class struggle. The class which exploits, to whom he gives the name of Capitalist class or Bourgouise, has all the means of production.
With these means of production, it always tries to suppress the other classes. Second class to which he has given the name of Labour class or Proletariats, doesn’t have any means of production. It doesn’t have anything to earn its livelihood except to sell their labour. They are always exploited by Capitalist class. A continous struggle is always going on in these both the classes. To this struggle Marx has given the name of ‘Class Struggle’.
Q. 3. When class and class struggle will come to an end?
Ans. Under the leadership of labour class with the help of class struggle, the tools of state will come in its hands and then the age of Socialism will start. According to Marx. ‘‘state is the biggest tool in the hands of capitalists to exploit others’’. After the revolution, Feudalism and Capitalism will try for anti revolution. That’s why the stage of Socialism from Capitalism is the temporary stage of authority of labourers.
After the establishment of Socialism, exploitation will come to an end, groups also will come to an end and every one will be able to get according to his labour. But in the developed stage of communism every one will be able to get according to his needs. Gradually, the state will disintegrate and the institution based on cooperation will come into being and class and class struggle will come to an end.
Q. 4. What is Capitalist Class?
Ans. Marx has given the concept of Capitalist Class. According to him one group in society is of that type which has all the means of production and which is the owner of all the means of production. With the help of its means of production it always exploits other classes. With the help of its means, it earns more money and becomes more and more rich. Because of his ownership of money and means of production the capitalist lives a luxurious life. It is a developing class which has become the powerful owner of production forces in a short span of time. It stops the social progress and exploits the labour class. One day will come when the labour class will throw away their authority and will establish a socialist society.
Q. 5. What is Labour class or Proletariat?
Ans. According to Marx, two classes are there in society–Capitalist class and labour class. Labour class doesn’t have the ownership of means of production. It doesn’t have any money. It doesn’t have any other way to earn their livelihood except selling their labour. They are always exploited from the hand of capitalist class. Capitalist class always take more work from them and pays less money for their work, Because of the labour of labour class, they always produce surplus value and keep it with themselves. Because of this exploitation labourer will become poorer and poorer. One day will come when a struggle will start in both the classes and labour class will throw the capitalist class from their authority and Socialist Society will be established.
Q. 6. What is Base or Sub-structure?
Ans. Marx has given the name of base or super structure to the basic part or lower part of society. According to Marx the substructure is the base of society or is a central part in which labourer or proletariat, production, experience of production, the know-how of labour and the production relations can be included. In this way it is an economic structure of the society.
Q. 7. What is Super Structure?
Ans. Marx has given the name of superstructure to upper part of whole society and has given the name of substructure or base to lower part or basic part of society. The collective form of these both structures is known as society. According to Marx in super structure, the outer part of society is coming. In this the different aspects of social life like political, intellectual, legal and cultural can be included. Marx was of the view that according to base the nature of super structure is determined. In other words these both are very deeply inter-related.
Q. 8. What is meant by Capitalism?
Ans. About Capitalism Marx was of the view that the reason of exploitation is Capitalism. Capitalists always taking away everything economically from labourers.
They are taking extra work from labourers but are not paying them enough money.
The capitalist is taking away the whole surplus value produced by labourer. Labourers are forced to do more work than the definite time. Capitalists are taking advantage of thier economic condition and are not giving them enough money. In this condition one day will come when all the labourers will unite and throw away the whole Capitalism.
Q. 9. Explain the concept of Social change of Karl Marx.
Ans. According to Marx, social change comes due to certain definite laws not by any imaginary world power or spiritual power. According to these laws, one socioeconomic system takes place of another socio-economic system. According to Marx for the fulfilment of the basic needs of life man always struggles. At the time of his birth, the means of production which a man gets from the society in his heritage he uses them and changes them so that his labour should be more productive and less problematic. That’s why he always changes and developes his means of production.
With the passage of time the changes will come in the means of production and with that change will also come in socio-economic structure. With the change in means of production, the production relations also undergo few changes and with that whole social structure will change. That’s why according to Marx the main and last reason of social change and development are materialistic conditions of production. Physical conditions, increase of population and other factors are also affecting life of humans but these factors are not important for social change. The main factor of social change is production system.
Q. 10. Write names of books written by Karl Marx.
Ans. Karl Marx wrote many books and edited many magazines which are given below:
(i) Economy and Political Manuscript — 1843
(ii) The Holy Family — 1845
(iii) The German Ideology: Thesis of Firebakh — 1846
(iv) The Poverty of Philosophy — 1847
(v) Communist Manifesto — 1848
(vi) The Class Struggle in France — 1850
(vii) The Eighteenth Brumire of Luise Bonapart — 1852
(viii) A Contribution to the Critic of Political Economy — 1859
(ix) Dass Capital (Ist Part) — 1867
(x) The Civil War in France — 1871
(xi) A Critic of Goya Programme — 1875
(xii) Dass Capital (IInd part, By Angels) — 1885
(xiii) Dass Capital (IIIrd Part, By Angels) — 1894
Q. 11. What is a Social Fact?
Ans. In every type of society some facts are there which are different from materialistic, Biological—Psychological facts. To these type of facts, Durkheim call as social facts. Durkheim gave some definitions of social fact. At one place Durkheim writes, ‘‘Social facts are those ways of thinking, doing work and feel which has the special characteristics to maintain its existence exterior to the individual consciousness.’’ At one more place Durkheim writes that, ‘‘Social facts are those ways of working, thinking and feeling which are exterior to man and which controls the man by their power of constraint.’’
Q. 12. Give Types of social fact.
Ans. Durkheim has described two types of social facts—Normal social fact and Pathological social fact. Normal social facts are those facts which are scattered everywhere in human society and if they are not common among all the persons then atleast they are common in most of them. Pathological social facts are those social facts which are not scattered everywhere in human society but are available at some places or at some particular place.
Q. 13. What is Suicide?
Ans. Durkheim says that in suicide person decides that he has to sacrifice his life.
That’s why from the point of view of a scientist, suicide is that in which the wish of person to sacrifice his life is included.
In this way according to Durkheim suicide can be defined in these words that, ‘‘The word suicide is used for all those deaths which are the direct or indirect result of any person’s that positive or negative work about which he knows that this work will produce this result (Death).’’
Q. 14. What is Egoistic Suicide?
Ans. Durkheim says that Egoistic suicide generally happens when the relation of man and group is very lose, unsystematic and incomplete. As a mean of social stability and social control, group consensus has been broken to the extent that person thinks himself socially away and different from natural contacts of primary community life.
When a person feels himself away from society and collectivity then slowly and slowly he becomes egoistic and in the successful functions of group his importance started to reduce and for group his life becomes less important. His bondage with society will become loose. In this way the disrespected person starts to feel alone and one thing comes in his mind that he is alone in this world and no one is sympathetic towards him. These circumstances are disrespectful for him and to save himself from this condition, he commits suicide.
Q. 15. What is Altruistic Suicide?
Ans. Altruistic suicide is totally opposite to the Egoistic suicide. In its literal meaning Altruistic sucide is that suicide which is being done not for himself but for society. Durkheim writes that the Altruistic suicide has been done at that time when the relation of man and society becomes so much deep that the society completely eliminates the personality of man. In this condition the existence of personality of man does not exist. Whatever he sees, thinks, does, that all he does from the point of view of society. He just becomes a member of a group nothing else. That’s why group forces him to give self-sarifice. In this way less collectivity, social solidarity or organization increases altruistic suicide.
Q. 16. What is Anomic Suicide?
Ans. According to Drukheim third type of suicide is called anomic suicide. Anomic suicide happens at that time when a state of anomy occurs in society means that type of suicide also has a particular social background. Durkheim was of the view that if once the state of anomy occurs in society then it spreads like a disease of leprosy. This state of anomy stays in the society till that time until the social forces will not be able to produce the state of organization and unity in society. Some people are unable to cope up with this anomic state then to stay away from this stage man goes towards suicide.
Q. 18. What is meant by Functionalism?
Ans. Durkheim has established functionalism as the main method for socialogical explanation. Durkheim has used Functionalim particularly in sociological method.
Durkheim was of the view that society is an organisim whose different parts are helpful in fulfilling its particular needs. The existence of social animal depends upon the functional unit of these parts. So in the end according to him the study of social animal should be done by functional analysis of all these interrelated parts. Durkheim has written all his writings from the point of view of functionalism. That’s why according to methodology of Durkheim this functionalim is a very important method.
Q. 19. What is Division of Labour?
Ans. According to Durkheim, meaning of division of labour is division of functions among different people according to their ability and capacity. Works are divided in this so that the work could be done in an organized way. Division of labour is a social fact, moral system and a universal phenomenon which exist in all the society. It does not originate but it develops.
Q. 19. What is Social Solidarity?
Ans. Durkheim says that in every society some values, ideas, beliefs, ways of behaviour, institutions and laws are there which binds the society in one knot. Because of these elements, the relations and unity or solidarity exists in society. These elements increase acceptance and solidarity in society. This type of solidarity is known as social solidarity. If these elements start to disintegrate then the society will also start to disintegrate.
Q. 20. What is meant by colletive Representation?
Ans. According to Durkheim, the elements come out of individual consciousness are the subject matter of Psychology and the facts come out of collective consciousness becomes the subject matter of sociology. In ever individual consciousness, the effect of collective consciouness is always there. In this way individual consciousness and collective consciousness moves side by side. The thoughts and methods come out of collective consciousness entered in the individual consciousness and controls and directs it. So the thoughts which come out of collective mind or consciouness is collective representation.