Q. 1. Name the ‘Urban Agglomeration’ having the highest share of immigration population in India.
Ans. Greater Mumbai received the highest number of migrants.
Q. 2. When was the actual migration recorded through Census?
Ans. It was recorded in 1881.
Q. 3. Who dominates the streams of short distance rural to rural migrations?
Ans. Females dominate the streams of short distance rural to rural migrations.
Q. 4. What are the four streams of migration in India?
Ans. (i) Rural to rural (ii) Rural to urban (iii) Urban to urban (iv) Urban to rural.
Q. 5. Differentiate between immigration and emigration.
Ans. Immigration: Migrants who move into a new place are called Immigrants. Emigration: Migrants who move out of a place are called Emigrants.
Q. 6. Explain the causes of migration of unskilled migrants from rural to urban areas in India and their sufferings.
What are the main causes of migration in India ?
Ans. In India, unskilled people migrate from rural to urban areas due to :
(ii) More demand of labour in cities.
(iii) Better job opportunities in urban areas.
(iv) Lack of basic infrastructural facilities in the rural areas.
(v) There is vast venation in the development of rural and urban areas.
(i) The absence of family members and children causes anxiety.
(ii) In rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well as mental pressure on the women.
(iii) Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. It may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities.
(iv) Menial jobs on low wages.
Q. 7. Explain the main reasons of the migration of males and females separately in India.
Identify the main reason for male/female selective migration.
Ans. In India, people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc.
Work and employment are the main causes of male migration (38%) while it is only three per cent for the females. Contrary to this, about 65 per cent of females move out from their parental houses following their marriage. This is the most important cause of migration of males and females.
Q.8. Why do people migrate? State the four streams of migration in India.
Ans. People migrate for a better economic and social life. There are two factors which influence the people’s migration, i.e., push factors such as unemployment, poor living conditions, unpleasant climate, etc., and pull factors like better job opportunities and living conditions, peace and stability, security of life, property, etc.
The four main streams in which migration takes place :
(i) Rural to rural areas.
(ii) Rural to urban areas.
(iii) Urban to urban areas.
(iv) Urban to rural areas.
Q.9. Differentiate between life-time migrant and migrant by last residence.
Ans. Life-time migrant : If the place of birth is different from the place of enumeration, it is known as lifetime migrant.
Migrant by last residence : If the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration it is known as migrant by last residence.
Q.10. Explain the causes and consequences of ruralurban migration in India with suitable examples.
Ans. Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. There are two main types of factors which cause people to migrate.
(a) Push factors which cause people to leave their place of residence.
(b) Pull factors which attract people from different places.
(a) In India, people migrate from rural to urban areas due to push factors like poverty, high population, pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like healthcare, education, and natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclonic storms, earthquakes, tsunami, wars and local conflicts.
(b) The factors that attract people to urban areas are better opportunities, availability of regular work, relatively higher wages, better education, better health care and sources of entertainment. Migration also has certain consequences like economic, social, demographic and environmental consequences.
(i) Economic Consequences:
(a) A major benefit of migration is the remittance sent by the migrants.
(b) Remittances from international migrants are a great source of foreign exchange.
(c) Punjab, Kerala, Tamil Nadu receive the highest remittances from international migrants
(d) Remittances are mainly used for food, repayments of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, etc.
(e) Migration from rural areas of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha are due to the success of green revolution.
(f) Unregulated migration to metro cities causes overcrowding. This is a negative consequence of migration as it causes the formation of slums.
(ii) Demographic Consequences :
(a) Migration leads to redistribution of population.
(b) Rural-urban migration contributes to the population growth of cities.
(c) Age and skill selective out-migration from rural areas have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.
(d) High male-dominated out-migration from rural areas of MP, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra etc. has led to serious imbalances in the age and sex composition.
(iii) Social Consequences :
(a) Migrants act as agents of social change.
(b) New ideas related to new technology, family planning, girls’ education, etc., get diffused to rural areas through people.
(c) It has positive contributions such as the evolution of composite culture, widens the mental horizon of people etc.
(d) It also has negative consequences such as anonymity, and a feeling of dejection which creates social vacuum can lead to criminal activities and drug abuse.
(iv) Environmental Consequences:
(a) Overcrowding has put pressure on existing social and physical infrastructure in urban areas.
(b) Unplanned growth of urban settlement leads to formation of slums and shanty colonies.
(c) Overexploitation of resources, cities are facing acute problem of depletion of groundwater, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of groundwater.
Q.11. What is migration?
Ans. Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in new locations.
Q.12. How does the male selective out-migration in rural areas puts extra pressure on women?
How does migration affect the status of women directly or indirectly?
Ans. Male selective out-migration in rural areas puts extra pressure on women physically as well as mentally. Migration of women for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in economy. But it also increases their vulnerability.
Q.13. Explain any three environmental consequences of migration in India.
Ans. The three environmental consequences of migration in India are:
(i) Urbanization : Urbanization has been a major driver of migration. An increase in the demand for labour in urban areas can attract urban wages and increase migration.
(ii) Marriage : Marriage is a very important social factor of migration. Every girl has to migrate to her inlaws place of residence. Thus, the entire female population of India has to migrate over short or long distance.
(iii) Education : Due to lack of educational facilities in rural areas, people migrate to the urban areas for higher education. Many of them settle down in the cities for earning a livelihood after completing their education.