Q.1. Mention the major crops of western India during 17th century. How did it come to India?
Ans. Several new crops from different parts of the world reached the Indian sub-continent during the 17th century. Maize was introduced into India, via africa and spain and by the end of 17th century was the major crop of western India. Vegetables like tomatoes, potatoes and chilies and fruits like pineapples and papaya were introduced with the New World during this period.
Q.2. Name the two types of peasants mentioned in Ain-i-Akbari.
Ans. According to ain-i-akbari, two types of peasants were mentioned: Khud-Kashta and pahi-Kashta. Khud-Kashtas lived in villages where they had their land. Pahi-Kashtas were those peasants who cultivate land on a contractual basis.
Q.3. Describe three factors that accounted for the constant expansion of agriculture during 16th and 17th centuries.
Ans. There was a constant expansion of agriculture during the Mughal period. The abundance of land, availability of labour and the mobility of peasants were three factors that accounted for the constant expansion of agriculture. Rice, wheat and millets were the most frequently cultivated crops. It depends on monsoons, but artificial systems of irrigation were also implemented. The state undertook the digging of new canals and repairs of old canals. though agriculture was labour intensive, farmers used new technologies that harnessed animal power. Wooden plough with iron tip was used since it was light. there was also the use of drill, pulled by a pair of giant oxen to plant seeds, but broadcasting of seeds was widely followed. A wooden blade with a narrow iron blade was used for sowing and weeding.
Q.4. Describe the condition of an average peasant of north India during the seventeenth century.
Ans. An average peasant of northern India had a pair of oxen and the ploughs and many peasants did not have even that. those farmers in Gujarat were considered as prosperous who possessed 6 acres of land. On the other hand, in Bengal, the upper limit of land was 5 acres for an average peasant. peasant who had more than 10 acres of land was considered rich. Cultivation was based on the principle of individual ownership. land of the peasants were bought and sold.
Q.5. Explain the sources of revenue of Village Panchayats during the Mughal rule in India.
Ans. The sources of revenue of village panchayats during the Mughal rule in India :
(i) The panchayat derived its funds from contributions made by individuals to a common financial pool.
(ii) Panchayats also had the authority to levy fines.
(iii) Agricultural taxes
(iv) Any other relevant point.
Q.6. How were the village artisans compensated by the villagers for their services ? Write about anyone.
Ans. Village artisans were compensated by the villagers by giving them one part of their produce or were given one piece of waste land kept with them.
Q.7. Describe the life led by the forest dwellers during the Mughal Era in 16th-17th centuries.
Ans. Forest dwellers were often termed as Jungli in the Mughal period. But it did not mean that they had no civilisation. rather, it meant that the forest dwellers were those people who earned their livelihood from the forests products. they were also engaged in hunting and shifting cultivation. they mostly performed specific seasonal activities like, the Bhils collected the forest produce in spring. They went for fishing in summer and cultivated their land in the months of monsoon and went for hunting in autumn and winter. Many forest dwellers captured elephants and supplied these elephants to the royal army. so, the peshkash received from the forest people often included a supply of elephants. Many forest dwellers made use of the spread of commercial agriculture and exported honey, gum and wax to other countries in the seventeenth century. Many tribesmen like the lohanis of punjab were engaged in an overland trade between India and afghanistan and most of them had become Zamindars. A few of them had even become King. Many tribesmen rendered military services to the King. They also demanded when they become Kings that their fraternity should provide their military service. Like, the ahom Kings had people who provided them military service in exchange for land.
Q.8. How did the Zamindars derive their power during the Mughal period? Mention any two ways.
Ans. The Zamindars had huge lands called Milkiyat (property). They performed several duties for the state. Caste was also another factor for the higher status of zamindars.
Q.9. Mention two factors that brought a stability in the silver currency during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Ans. Trade in asia with other regions brought in huge amounts of silver bullion into asia to pay for goods procured from India. A large part of that silver gravitated towards India. so, this period saw a great stability in silver.
Q.10. What does the third part of Ain, ‘Mulk-Abadi’ deal with?
Ans. It included the office of the Diwan who was responsible for supervising the fiscal system of the Empire. Revenue officials and record keepers penetrated the agricultural domain and became a decisive agent in shaping agrarian relations.