Q. 1. Define the term ‘population distribution.’
Ans. The term ‘population distribution’ refers to the way people are spaced over the Earth’s surface. The population distribution is uneven throughout the world.
Q. 2. Define density of population.
Ans. Density of population is the ratio between the number of people to the size of land or Density of Population = Population/Area.
Q. 3. Define the term ‘population growth.’
Ans. The population growth or population change refers to the change in number of inhabitants of a territory during a specific period of time.
Q. 4. How is agricultural density of population different from physiological density of population?
Ans. The agricultural density of a population is the number of farmers per unit area of farmland. Physiological density is the number of people per unit area of arable land.
Q. 5. Name the state of India having lowest density of population as per 2011 Census.
Ans. According to 2011 Census, Arunachal Pradesh has the lowest density of population.
Q. 6. Name the Union Territory of India having lowest density of population as per 2011 Census.
Ans. Andaman and Nicobar Islands have the lowest density of population.
Q. 7. How is density of population of a region calculated?
Ans. Density of population is ratio between the number of people to the size of land. This ratio is called as density of population. It is usually measured in persons per sq km.
Density of population = Population Area
Q. 8. What is the density of population of India according to 2011 Census?
Ans. 382 persons per sq km.
Q. 9. Name the state with the largest area.
Q. 10. Name the state having the least share of population.
Ans. State having least share of population: Sikkim.
Q.11. What is meant by density of population? How is it helpful in getting a better understanding of the spatial distribution of population in relation to land?
Ans. (i) Density of population is expressed as number of persons per unit area.
(ii) It helps in getting a better understanding of the spatial distribution of population in relation to land. For example the density of population in India (2011) is 382 persons per sq km and there has been a steady increase of more than 200 persons per sq km over the last 50 years as the density of population increased from 117 persons/sq km in 1951 to 382 persons/sq km in 2011.
Q.12. Explain with examples the three economic factors influencing the population distribution in the world.
Ans. The three economic factors influencing the population distribution in the world are:
(i) In rural areas, most people make direct use of the surrounding land to support themselves through agriculture, hunting and mining. If the land cannot support its population, the surplus moves out.
(ii) When a great variety of economic activities is concentrated in single area, the result is high population density. These economic activities include wholesale and retail trade manufacturing, finance and business and even government and medical services as well as communication.
(iii) Various economic activities are interrelated with the types of technology that are used, and jointly they influence population distribution.
Q.13. Explain with examples how the availability of water and landform influence the distribution of population in India.
Ans. Water Resources: Water is an essential resource for the survival of man. Water is needed for irrigation, industrial activity, power generation, drinking and other domestic purposes. Ancient civilizations like the Indus Valley developed along the river valleys. navigable waterways also serve as major transport and trade routes, e.g., the Rhine. Hence, population distribution is high near the water resources. Landform: Landform influences man‘s economic activities as well as the distribution of population. Rugged topography, harsh climate, infertile soil does not favour agriculture or development of industries. Moreover, uneven topography is not suitable for the development of transport networks. Hence, distribution of population is less in the mountainous areas of the Himalayas, Alps, etc.
Q.14. Very hot and dry and very cold and wet regions of India have low density of population. In this light, explain the role of climate on the distribution of population.
Ans. Climate plays a major role in determining the distribution of population. Areas with temperate climate tend to be densely populated as there is enough rain and heat to grow crops. e.g., the Northern Plains.
Areas with extreme climate of hot and cold tend to be sparsely populated. e.g., the Thar Desert, the Himalayan Mountains, etc.
Q.15. What is the density of population? Mention four states of India which have highest density of population.
Ans. Density of population = population / area The states having highest density of population :
(ii) West Bengal
(iii) Uttar Pradesh
Q. 16. Define the term ‘Population Growth.’
Ans. Population growth is an increase in the number of people that reside in a country, state or city. To determine whether there has been population growth, the following formula is used: (Birth rate+ migration) – (death rate + migration).
Q.17. Define the term ‘Positive Growth of Population.’
Ans. Positive growth of population is a condition where the birth rate is higher than the mortality rate.
Q. 18. Mention any two causes of the negative growth rate of population in India during 1911-1921.
Ans. (i) Poor health facilities
(ii) Lack of basic necessities.
Q. 19. How has the downward trend towards CBR been possible?
Ans. The downward trend of CBR has been possible due to :
(i) Increase in the mean age at marriage
(ii) Improved quality of life
(iii) Education of females
Q.20. Why is the period from 1951-81 referred to as a period of population explosion?
Ans. The period from 1951-1981 is referred to as a period of population explosion as there was high fertility rate and a rapid fall in mortality rate. Thus, the growth was very high.
Q.21. What do you mean by growth rate?
Ans. Net change in the size of population between two points is known as growth rate.
Q.22. Name the state having the highest and lowest population growth rate.
Ans. Highest growth rate—Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar. Lowest growth rate—Nagaland (0.5%).
Q. 23. What is the present annual growth rate of India?
Q. 24. Differentiate between Positive and Negative Growth of Population.
Ans. Positive growth of population happens when the birth rate is more than the death rate between two points of time or when people from other countries migrate permanently to a region. Negative growth of population occurs when the birth rate falls below the death rate or people migrate to other countries between two points of time.
Q.25. When does the positive growth of population take place?
Ans. The positive growth of population takes place when the birth rate is higher than the mortality rate.
Q. 26. Which state of India registered the lowest rate of population during 1991-2001?
Ans. Tamil Nadu.
Q. 27. “The decade 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India.” Explain the statement by giving any three reasons.
Ans. The decades 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India due to the following reasons:
(i) There was rapid fall in mortality rate.
(ii) High fertility rate of the population in the country.
(iii) Improvement in living conditions.
(iv) Improvement in transportation and communication.
(v) Improvement in health and sanitation
Q. 28. Why are the decades 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stationary phase of growth of India’s population?
Ans. The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stationary phase of growth of India’s population as :
(i) Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.
(ii) Poor health and medical services were responsible for the stagnant growth rate.
(iii) Illiteracy of people at large and inefficient distribution system of food and other basic necessities were largely responsible for the high birth and death rates during this period.
Q.29. Why is the age structure considered an important indicator of population composition? Give reasons.
Ans. (i) Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups.
(ii) This is an important indicator of population composition, since a large size of population in the age group of 15-59 indicates a large working population.
(iii) A greater proportion of population above 60 years represents an ageing population which requires more expenditure on health care facilities. Similarly, high proportion of young population would mean that the region has a high birth rate and the population is youthful.
Q. 30. Which states have large rural population in India? Give one reason for such large rural population.
Ans. The states which have large rural population are: Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
Reasons for such large rural population are :
(i) These states lack industrial development.
(ii) Their economy largely depends on agriculture.
Q. 31. Why do some states of India have higher rates of work participation than others?
Ans. The work participation rate is higher in the states of lower levels of economic development, since numbers of manual workers needed to perform the subsistence or near subsistence economic activities are easily available and that too in large quantity.
Q.32. ‘The agricultural sector has the largest share of Indian workers.’-Explain.
Ans. The agricultural sector has the largest share of Indian workers. About 58.2% of total working population are cultivators and agricultural labourers, whereas, only 4.2% workers are engaged in household industries, and 37.6% are other workers including non-household industries like trade and commerce, construction and other works.
(i) Government has failed to provide employment making people to fall back upon agriculture.
(ii) The other sectors have not fully developed in the country.