Very Short Questions with Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give meaning of Social Change.
Ans. Every change which occurs in society is not social change. Only that change is known as social change which does occur in social relations. In this way the change which occurs in social relations is known as social change. We include relations and mutual interactions of different parts of society in the concept of social change.
Q. 2. Give two definitions of Social Change.
Ans. According to Kingsley Davis, ‘‘By social change, I meant only such alterations as occur in social organization that is structure and function of society.
According to Jones, ‘‘Social change is a term used to describe variations or modifications of any aspect of social aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interactions or social organization.’’
Q. 3. Which are the factors of social change?
Ans. (i) Social change comes due to physical factors.
(ii) Biological factors also bring social change.
(iii) Demographic factors, cultural and technological factors also contribute in bringing social change.
Q. 4. How is social change comparable?
Ans. When we talk about change them we generally compare present state with earlier state that what is the difference between earlier and present state. This difference can come out after comparing two states. In this way we can say that social change is comparable.
Q. 5. What is cultural Lag?
Ans. Culture has two parts material and non-material. Change comes very quickly in material culture and we even accept it whole heartedly. But quick change hardly comes in non-material culture because of which it lags behind the material aspect.
This laging of non-material aspect is known as cultural lag.
Q. 6. What is the relation of environment with social change?
Ans. Environment also brings quick social change. If temperature of any region goes up or falls down very quickly, if volcano erupts at any place, if flood comes or famine occur then relations in that region changes very quickly which is known as social change. In this way environment plays a very important role in bringing social change.
Q. 7. What is the relation of technology with social change?
Ans. Technological factors are quite important in bringing social change.
Technology changes our society. Yet this change is in material aspect but it also bring changes in customs traditions, institutions etc. of our society. For example industrial revolution in 18th century brought changes in every aspect of life.
Q. 8. What is Social Evolution?
Ans. Social change is one of the types of social change. Word Evolution is an English word which come out of the Latin word ‘Evoluere’ whose meaning is to expand externally. With evolutionary change, not only every thing increases but knowledge of structural change also comes out.
Q. 9. Give meaning of Progress as a form of Social Change.
Ans. Change which is according to our desires and which always bring profitable situation is known as progress. Progress is an English word taken from Latin word ‘Progredior’ whose meaning is to move forward. In this way progress is the change which comes according to our wish and in desired direction.
Q. 10. What is Revolution?
Ans. Revolution is also a type of social change. Revolutionary change in society comes in a way that it not only affects the present time but it also affects the future.
Actually sometimes situation arises in society that society goes on the way of disorganization. To remove this type of situation, revolutionary change comes in society. This revolutionary change comes at once and very quickly.
Q. 11. What is Power?
Ans. Every person does some work in life with his will and in some cases he is forced to do so. Power is physical and an empirical aspect of authority because of which all society members are forced to accept the decisions taken by the authority.
Nature of power is determined by social prestige, status, physical and material power etc.
Q. 12. What is meant by Authority?
Ans. Authority means that other members of society—who have agreed to abide by its rules and regulations must obey this authority within its proper domain.
Q. 13. What is Rural Society?
Ans. That society is known as rural society which lives life based on agriculture, where primary relations are of great importance and where less population with homogeneity is there. Informal control is there in rural society where people are controlled by religion, traditions, mores etc.
Q. 14. What is a Town?
Ans. That area which is larger than a village but is smaller than city is known as Town. Generally that geographical area is known as Town which have population of more than 5,000, density of population is 400 persons per sq. km. and more than 75% people are engaged in agricultural works.
Q. 15. What is a city?
Ans. That geographical region is known as a city where people adopt thousands of occupations except agriculture, where secondary relations are of great importance and where more population and complex relations are there. Formal control is there in cities which is based on rules and laws.
Short Questions with Answer (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give meaning of Social Change.
Ans. Change is law of nature. With this we can come to know about differences.
Social change is not related with all the changes which come in our society but the meaning of social change is that change which comes in our social system, social institutions, processes, relations, behaviour, social structure etc. In this way, social change is related with social life of social individual.
Q. 2. Give characteristics of Social Change.
Ans. (i) Social change is universal. It is the need of every society. That’s why it is a continuous process. We cannot find any society in history where change has never come. Change was there in ancient society and is also in modern society.
(ii) Rate of social change is not uniform. Yet social change is universal but its rate is different in different societies.
(iii) We cannot predict definitely about social change because social relations, which exist in society, are not definite.
(iv) Social change is the result of attraction of many factors. It never comes because of one factor because our society is complex in nature.
(v) Social change is law of nature because we cannot control the natural forces and they bring changes with them.
Q. 3. Which important changes have come in Indian society?
Ans. (i) Caste system has come to an end in Indian society.
(ii) Child marriages are reduced to a great extent.
(iii) A number of widow marriages are taking place.
(iv) Joint families are changing into nuclear families.
(v) Status of women is changing and is moving upward.
(vi) Dowry system is loosing its importance day by day.
Q. 4. Give four characteristics of Evolution.
Ans. (i) Social evolution is a continuous process in which change comes continuously.
(ii) With continuity, definite direction is also there in social evolution because it not only comes in size but also comes in structure.
(iii) Social evolution doesn’t have any external pressure because internal features of every thing comes out in it.
(iv) Evolutionary change always goes from simplicity to complexity and it comes in definite direction.
Q. 5. Give four characteristics of Revolution.
Ans. (i) In revolution, sudden change comes in social system because of which very quick results come out.
(ii) Very quick change comes in both parts of culture, material or non-material, with revolution with which society changes completely.
(iii) Revolution is a conscious process not an unconcious process in which conscious efforts are being made from a long time and authority of the state changes with this.
(iv) In revolution, old system is generally thrown out of power with peaceful or violent method and new system is established after this.
Q. 6. What is meant by Legal Domination?
Ans. That place where there is a system of rules which is superior from administrative and judicial aspect and which is valid for members of a regular group have legal domination. Those people are superior who have the power to give orders.
They are appointed by rules of law and they themselves give directions to maintain this system. Those people who obey their orders, they implement the legal domination in the system.
Q. 7. What is meant by Traditional domination?
Ans. Traditional domination is based on the validity of the belief and which remains all the time. Status of those people is higher who implement the power of order and they obtain authority due to their higher Status. They have priviledged right to take individual decisions. Those people who remain under their authority are their subjects and as subjects they always obey the orders. It is given by traditions and norms of society.
Q. 8. What is Charismatic Domination?
Ans. That person keeps the charismatic domination who have some divine power or have any charismatic trait to lead the people. Any leader can also have this type of power. Those people who obey the orders of that leader are his followers. They believe in his charismatic traits instead of tradition. Military Generals, leaders, spiritual leaders etc. can have this type of domination.
Q. 9. What is Legal Authority?
Ans. Authority based upon formal rules and laws is known as legal authority.
This type of authority is being given by laws or rules of the country. Jurisdiction of the concerned person is being given in this. Authoritative person uses this type of authority according to the definite rules and he can be punished if he will go beyond his Jurisdiction. All the persons, who have got legal authority, don’t have same type of authority but the authority of the concerned person depends upon his post. There is a definite hierarchy among the different posts.
Q. 10. What is meant by Traditional Authority?
Ans. Authority given on the basis of social values, folkways, mores, traditions, customs etc. is known as traditional authority. No written rules or laws are behind this authority. Traditional authority always depends upon unwritten rules. Social Sanction is the main force behind this type of authority. If anyone defies this type of authority then he is punished by social boycot. Example of this type of authority is head of the joint family in Indian Society. Authority of Brahmins in caste system was also based upon traditions.
Q. 11. What is Charismatic Authority?
Ans. The source of individual authority can be totally different from traditional authority. The power of order can be used by a leader, a prophet, a hero etc. but this type of person can be a charismatic leader if he has any magical power, revelation or any other extra ordinary quality and he has some sort of charisma.
This type of authority is neither based on legislative rules and nor on tradition but is based on some sort of charisma. This type of power only those people have who have some charismatic powers. It takes a lot of time to achieve this type of authority. In other words the person should develop his personality in such a way that the people should be able to understand that this person has developed some charismatic powers and peoples accept his authority. Magicians, Prophets, Pir, Military General, Religious leaders come in this type of category.
Q. 12. How does domination work?
Ans. Domination works with the help of authority or power but this power is generally legal. This power generally comes with the help of laws. In this way formal institutionalized help is there behind the domination and it is legally sanctioned.
Yet certain other powers also work in our society except legal power but legal power is the motivating force behind every type of domination. Domination is the mixture of legal authority, rules and other type of powers and it tells as about nature and dynamics of social system.
Q. 13. Who is a criminal?
Ans. Crime is that act which is being committed against the existing norms and ideals of society. Criminal is that person who commits that act against the social norms. But here one thing should be kept in mind that the act against social norms should be proved in the court. If that act will not be proved then that person cannot be called as a criminal.
Q. 14. How society is disorganized with crimes?
Ans. It is correct that society is disorganized with crimes. Crime is the work done against society and social system. This work is also against law. If this type of work is committed again and again then whole of social system breaks down.Whole of social structure also breaks down. As a result, social relations also begin to break down. If crimes or criminals increase in society then there will a danger of breaking down of whole social system. In this way we can say that society is disorganized with crimes.
Q. 15. How an individual becomes a criminal?
Ans. There are two views regarding how an individual becomes a criminal. First view is that whichever traits an individual have, they come within him from his parents means through genes. An individual becomes a criminal only because of genes. If parents are criminals then child will definitely becomes a criminal unless he will not. But these days, this view is rejected by the scientists. According to them, these traits never comes from parents but exists in society itself. If any one becomes a criminal then it is because of his circumstances. Poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, more population, broken homes, bad company etc. are some of the reasons with which person becomes a criminal. In this way circumstances of society forces an individual to become a criminal.