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Very Short with Questions Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give meaning of Structure.
Ans. Systematic form of different units is called structure. It means that if different units would be kept in a sequence, a systematic form comes in front of us which is known as structure. Family, religion, community, organisation, group, values, status etc. are the social institutions and norms which form the structure.
Q. 2. Give one definition of Social Structure.
Ans. According to S.F. Nadal,‘‘ We arrive at the structure of society through abstracting from the concrete population and its behaviour the pattern or network (or system) of relationship obtaining between actors in their capacity of playing roles relative to one another.’’
Q. 3. ‘Social Structure is abstract.’ How?
Ans. Yes, social structure is abstract because all the units which form the structure i.e. institutions, norms, values etc. are abstract and we cannot see them. That’s why social structure is also abstract.
Q. 4. Who was the first Sociologist to the term social structure ?
Ans. Term social structure was used first time by famous Sociologist Herbert Spencer.
Q. 5. What is function?
Ans. Functions are the desired results which help in maintaining balance with a specific system. If any unit, value or role of social structure is helpful in fulfilling the needs of that structure then it gives its cooperation in maintaining balance with structure. This cooperation of that unit, value or role is known as function.
Q. 6. What is dysfunction?
Ans. Dysfunction is exactly opposite to function. These are those undesired results which play their role in reducing the balance between units of social structure. If any unit of social structure hardly gives its cooperation in maintaining system of that structure then the role performed by it is its dysfunction.
Q. 7. What is Stratification?
Ans. Stratification is a process in which high and low groups have been divided in social structure and their roles and statuses have been determined. Every group has its definite place and all the groups are related with each other with inferior and superior relations.
Q. 8. Give literal meaning of Stratification.
Ans. English word ‘Strata’ is originated from the Latin word ‘Stratum’ whose meaning is ‘layer’. Its meaning is that any specific object has been divided into different layers and these layers have system of superiority and inferiority.
Q. 9. Give two characteristics of Social Stratification.
Ans. (i) Universal Process:—Stratification is a universal process. We cannot find any human society where stratification is not there.
(ii) Inequality of Status:—Every member doesn’t have equal status. Anyone has superior position and anyone has low position.
Q. 10. What is the base of Stratification according to Karl Marx?
Ans. According to Karl Marx, the main base of stratification in society is wealth.
According to him, society is divided in classes on the basis of money. On one side capitalists are there and on other side labourers are there. Society has been divided on the basis of rich and poor.
Q. 11. Give one definition of social stratification.
Ans. According to P.Gisbert, ‘‘Social stratification is the division of society in permanent groups or categories linked with each other by the relationships of superiority and subordination.’’
Q. 12. Which are the two main basis of social stratification?
Ans. (i) Biological basis—Gender, Age, Race, Birth etc.
(ii) Social cultural basis—Economy, Education, Politics, Religion etc.
Q. 13. Give meaning of Social Inequality.
Ans. When all the members of society do not get enough chances to develop their personalities and differences would be there among them on the basis of caste, birth, race, colour, oocupation, wealth, income, language then this is known as inequality.
Q. 14. How many types of Stratification are there?
Ans. There are two types of stratification—
(i) Closed Stratification—That stratified system which is not flexible but is strict.
For example caste system.
(ii) Open Stratification—That stratified system which is not strict but is flexible enough to adjust any one. For example class system.
Q. 15. In how many parts ancient Indian society was divided?
Ans. Ancient Indian society was divided units four parts—
(iv) Lower castes.
Q. 16. What are Social Processes?
Ans. Relations between individual and group are established through these processes which integrate and disintegrate humans. That’s why the processes which exist in the sector of social relationships are known as social processes.
Q. 17. Give definition of social processes as given by Park and Burgess.
Ans. According fto Park and Burgess, ‘‘By social processes we mean those ways of interaction which we can deserve when individuals and groups meet and establish system of relationships or which happens when changes disturb already existing modes of life.’’
Short with Questions Answer (2 Mark Each)
Q.1. What in Social Structure?
Ans. Our society is made because of co-operation of many units. These units are institutions, associations, groups, status, roles etc. Just with the collection of these units, society cannot be formed but is formed because of a specific system which exists in these units. For example, we cannot call wood, nails, fevicol, polish, a chair.
But when all these things will be joined in a specific system, then it can be called as a structure of a chair. In this way, all the units of society, which we can only feel, will be kept in a system then it is known as social structure.
Q. 2. Give two characteristics of social structure.
Ans. (i) Different social structures of different societies. Social structure of every society is different because the social life of different parts of a society is different.
Every society has its different institutionalised rules. That’s why structure of all the societies is different.
(ii) Social structure is abstract. Social structure is abstract because the units with which this structure is formed like institution, association, norms etc., all are abstract. They don’t have any concrete form, we can only feel them. That’s why they are abstract.
Q. 3. What is structural functional method?
Ans. This method is a method to analyse the institutions, community, association etc. which sees that which are the different parts of institution, community or association and how they remain in a systematic way. This method also observes that how different parts are working to maintain the integrity of the system. This method says that action and structure are very much dependent upon each other.
When change comes in structure then actions of different parts also went through change. Its main objective is to find mutual relationship between different parts of units and their position in the system.
Q. 4. What is the need of stratification in our society?
Ans. Stratification is very much necessary for our society because it divides society in different stratas. If it would not be there then equality will come in society and all the society members will become equal from all aspects. Then there would be no difference among them. There would be no difference between an intelligent person and a mentally retarted person. All the educated and illiterate persons will become same which is not possible. Infact God itself has kept few differences among humans.
They are also divided on the basis of colour, sex, race etc. Scholars are of the view that if all the society members would be granted the status of equality then after some time inequality itself will occur in society. That’s why inequality will remain a society and as a result stratification will remain in society.
Q. 5. Give differences between closed and open systems of stratification.
Q. 6. Caste is one of the bases of stratification. Explain.
Ans. Stratification in society exists on the basis of birth or caste. In ancient Hindu Society, individuals were given status on the basis of their caste. Hindu society was divided into four castes i.e. Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Lower castes.
Humans were connected to the castes in which they were born and were given status of their respective castes. Individuals born in Brahmin caste were given highest status in society. It was not possible for an individual to change his caste even if he had the ability to do so. In this way there was a hierarchy of castes in society. So in ancient times, birth or caste was the main base of stratification in society.
Q. 7. Explain social stratification on the basis of gender.
Ans. Gender is also one of the base of social stratification. Difference on the basis of gender is of male and female. During ancient times, goods and functions were divided on the basis of gender. Females were considered inferior to males because of which their social status and functions were always different from each other. This difference in itself is given by nature like a woman gives birth to a baby not by a male. Yet many laws have been made to remove disabilities of women and they are given right to take share from father’s and husband’s property but still, in many parts of country, they are considered inferior to males. Yet they are doing equal work as compared to males but still difference is there on the basis of gender.
Q. 8. Give four characteristics of cooperation.
Ans. (i) It is universal and continuous process because it exists and occurs in every society. It is a psychological and social need and our whole life depends upon cooperation.
(ii) It is a conscious process because we need this process to achieve our aims. A person has to depend upon others to fulfil his needs while living in society. That’s why he cooperates with others.
(iii) The People, who are doing cooperation, are trying collectively to achieve any specific aim.
(iv) The People have specific aim while cooperating with others.
Q. 9. Give types of cooperation as given by Maclver and Page.
Ans. Maclver and Page have given two types of cooperation:
(i) Direct cooperation—Direct cooperation is that in which many persons do same type of work for the common aim. In this, alone a person cannot do anything only collective efforts are required to achieve common aims. Like 11 players of a cricket team try their level best to achieve their common aim i.e. to win.
(ii) Indirect cooperation—When different persons do different types of functions to achieve a common aim then it is known as indirect cooperation.
Q. 10. What is Assimilation?
Ans. This process is active in modern complex societies. When people of different cultures come closer to each other then interaction starts between them after living with each other for a long time. Their differences come to an end. With the passage of time they look like a one group. This process of mixing of people of different cultures with each other is known as the process of Assimilation.
Q. 11. What is Ethnicity?
Ans. Ethnicity is that sense in a person in which a person of one race considers himself superior to persons of other races. One race hates the other due to this sense of superiority. Even violence occurs in two races due to this sense of ethnicity. This sense never comes by birth but person learns it only while living in society. For example—white people consider themsleves as superior to yellow and black people.
Q. 12. Why India is known as home of races or museum of races?
Ans. India is known as a home of races or museum of races because many types of races live over here. Actually Dravidian people lived over here in ancient times.
Then Aryan people came over here. Later on India was attacked by many other races and they settled over here. Gradually all these races become a part of Indian society. This mixture of different races had greatly contributed towards our social system in which every race was given a place. Due to this given place, a number of chances came of complete mixture of these races. So, no race had been able to maintain its actual form and mixture of races came in front of us. That’s why India is known as museum of races.
Q. 13. What are the reasons of Ethnicity?
Ans. (i) Many a times any group is in minority and any one is in majority because of which majority group starts to consider itself as superior to the minority group.
(ii) Due to lack of good education, children become traditional and sense of superiority comes in them. They start to consider themselves as superior than other races.
(iii) Sometimes any specific race becomes more economic prosperous because of which it starts to consider itself as superior to other race.
(iv) Some times political parties encourage any specific race for their political ambition because of which sense of superiority comes in them.