Very Short Question With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. What is the meaning of Social Group?
Ans. Meaning of social group is the contact and relation of one person with other persons. If some persons will stand at one place then they cannot be called as a group because there is one conscious condition in group.
Q. 2. Give one characteristic of Social Group.
Ans. Members of a group have mutual relations among them. Social group is not the collection of the humans but this collection is a group because of their mutual relations. These mutual relations are because of inaction between them.
Q. 3. Why were groups formed by humans?
Ans. There were no groups in ancient times. Early Man used to hunt alone. Sometimes they themselves were killed by animals. So early men created groups so that they could not be killed by animals and could fulfill their needs. Except this, he was not in a position to fulfill all of his needs alone. He was forced to take co-operation of others which resulted in the formation of groups.
Q. 4. Give two definitions of Social Groups.
Ans. According to Harry M. Johnson, ‘‘Social group is a system of interaction.’’ According to MacIver and Page, ‘‘By group we mean any collection of human beings who are brought into social relationship with one another.’’
Q. 5. Give meaning of Primary Group.
Ans. Cooley was of the view that primary groups are those groups in which human relations are full of love, cooperation and respect. Man works in these groups without any hesitation.
Q. 6. Give three primary groups given by Cooley.
Ans. Cooley has given three types of primary groups : (i) Family (ii) Playgroup (iii) Neighbourhood.
Q. 7. Give characteristics of Primary Groups.
Ans. (i) Members have physical proximity among them.
(ii) There is stability among these groups.
(iii) They are small in size.
Q. 8. What are Secondary Groups?
Ans. In modern society, needs of the persons have been increased upto that extent that man cannot fulfil his needs by becoming members of the primary groups alone.
He has to take membership of other groups. The aim of person is to achieve his objective.
Formal relations exist in them and they are large in size. These are known as secondary groups.
Q. 9. What are the characteristics of Secondary Groups?
Ans. (i) Area of these groups is wide because number of members of these group is quite big.
(ii) These groups have been made to achieve any specific purpose.
Q. 10. What is meant by Informal group?
Ans. Informal group is that group which forms at once and without any conscious effort. People with common objectives interact with each other and group is formed automatically. Play group is one of its example. These are small in size.
Q. 11. What is Formal group?
Ans. The group which is full of rules based on stratified system and formed cautiously is known as formal group. These groups are large in size. For example political party.
Q. 12. What is Social Stratification?
Ans. Stratification is a process by which groups are divided in social structure and
their roles and status are determined. Each group has its definite place and all the
groups are related with each other with inferior and superior relations.
Q. 13. Give two Characteristics of Social Stratification.
Ans. (i) Universal Process : Stratification is a universal process. We cannot find any human society where stratification was not there or is not there.
(ii) Inequality of Status : Each member don’t have equal status. Anyone has superior status and anyone has lower status in society.
Q. 14. Stratification is social. How?
Ans. Stratification is social because it is very important for the members of the Society. Any biological characteristic cannot become the base of social stratification until it would become a part of the values, ideas and ideals of society members. That’s why it is social.
Q. 15. What are the two main basis of Social Stratification?
Ans. There are two main basis of social stratification and these are :
(i) Biological bases.
(ii) Socio-cultural bases.
Short Question With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give Importance of Primary groups.
Ans. (i) Primary groups play an important role in the process of socialization of man.
(ii) Man comes to know about his self in primary groups.
(iii) They are very important in the personality development of an individual.
(iv) An individual gets protection only in these groups.
(v) Primary groups are the important base of social control.
(vi) Psychological needs of an individual are also fulfilled in these groups.
(vii) Members of these groups are freely related with each other.
Q. 2. What is Secondary Group?
Ans. In modern society, human needs are increased upto the extent that man cannot fulfil his needs by becoming members of the primary groups alone. He has to take membership of other groups. The aim of person is to achieve his objective. Formal relations exist in them and they are large in size. These are known as secondary groups.
Q. 3. Write characteristics of Secondary groups.
Ans. (i) Area of these groups is wide because number of members of these groups are more.
(ii) These groups are made to achieve any specific purpose.
(iii) Members have indirect relations in secondary groups.
(iv) Formal organization is there in these groups and some specific rules have been made for them.
(v) Relations in these groups are formal and indirect.
(vi) Membership is optional and man can leave their membership at any time.
Q. 4. What is the importance of Secondary groups.
Ans. (i) Secondary groups satisfy different needs.
(ii) These groups develop the personality of an individual.
(iii) These groups contribute in social progress.
(iv) Secondary groups make the outlook wider.
(v) They are helpful in the cultural development.
Q. 5. Give difference between Primary and Secondary Groups.
Ans. (i) Primary groups are small in size and secondary groups are large in size.
(ii) Relations in Primary groups are direct, personal and informal but in secondary groups, relations are indirect and formal.
(iii) Members of Primary groups have feeling of cooperation among them but in secondary groups, cooperation is because of a specific motive.
(iv) Primary groups are available in villages but secondary groups are available in cities.
Q. 6. What is meant by IN GROUP?
Ans. Classification of IN group and OUT group is given by Sumner. In group exist in all the stage of social evolution because individual personality is greatly affected by these groups. In groups can also be called as we groups. MacIver and Page wrote that In groups are the groups in which an individual is the member with his choice. For example caste, religion, family, tribe, gender etc. are some of the groups about whom an individual have complete knowledge. These groups are peaceful by nature and traits like mutual cooperation, sympathy etc. does exist in these. Individual have outlook of enmity towards outsiders. Some times people come close to each other to face other group. ‘We feeling’ does exist in these groups.
Q. 7. What are Out groups?
Ans. Word ‘They group’ is used for out group. These are those groups of which an individual is not a member and consider it as other group. Generally person, in society, is not associated with every group. The group with which he is associated is his In group and the group with which he is not associated is his out group. In this way we can say that an individual is not associated directly with these groups and these are like they groups for him. Organization of these groups is quite loose during war time. Ideas of Out group are not important for an individual as compared to In group. These are universal groups and are available everywhere.
Q. 8. What is meant by membership group?
Ans. If we want to understand the meaning of reference group then first of all we need to understand the meaning of membership group because we can only understand the meaning of reference group only in the context of membership group.
If an individual is member of any group and takes part in its activities by considering it of his own then that group is known as membership group. Every member has one of his group and a sense of proximity comes in him because of its membership.
He began to accept ideas, norms, values etc. of that group. He began to consider himself as an inseparable part of that group. In this way all of his activities, values are according to that group. Ideas, values etc. of that group becomes part of his personality and while evaluating others, he keeps group’s values in front of him. In this way this group is his membership group.
Q. 9. Give meaning of Ascribed status and Achieved status.
Ans. Ascribed status : Ascribed status is that status which a person gets without doing any effort or hardwork. For example Brahmins have the higher status in caste system of Hindu society. Person gets social status according to his caste in which he is born, Sex, caste, birth, age, kinship etc. are all the basis of ascribed status which a person gets without any effort.
Achieved status : Achieved status is that status which a person gets because of his individual effort or hardwork. There is no contribution of any of his relatives or of his birth in it. He is required to do hard work to achieve this type of status.
Q. 10. What is meant by Prestige?
Ans. Every person wants that other persons of society should respect him and every one must respect him in society. That’s why people does continuous efforts.
Because of their efforts, some people get respect in society and some are unable to get respect in society. That’s why successful persons are respected by failures. This respect is known as prestige of a successful person.
Q. 11. What is meant by Multiple Roles?
Ans. Theory of Multiple Roles was given by Ralph Linton. According to him the number of status a person has, same number of roles he holds. Every person has many status and in this way he has as many roles. Many status have many roles and these are known as Multiple rules. One status has many roles and it is known as collection of roles or multiple roles.
Q. 12. What are the features of Role?
Ans. (i) One person has many roles in society.
(ii) Each role is determine by our culture.
(iii) Each role is functional in society.
(iv) Role is determined by the social sanctions.
(v) Different roles have different importance in society.
(vi) Each role is changeable.
Q. 13. Write importance of Role.
Ans. (i) Social system is maintained and balanced by roles.
(ii) Human activities are regulated by roles.
(iii) All the functions in society are divided by roles.
(iv) Interactions are regulated by roles.
(v) Human are made active by roles and thus human behaviour is greatly influenced by roles.
Q. 14. What is functional aspect of status?
Ans. Role is the functional aspect of status. It means that when any person gets any status in society, he also gets role related with that status. Person is required to work according to that role so that the prestige of that status could be maintained.
For example if an individual becomes an officer, he is required to give the duties related with that status. In this way role is the functional aspect of status.
Q. 15. Give differences between open and closed systems of stratification.
Ans. Closed System of Stratification :
1. No mobility is there in closed system of stratification.
2. No flexibility is there in it means this system is not flexible.
3. Closed system of stratification is based upon birth.
4. Person gets ascribed status in this type of system.
5. Caste is the best example of closed system of stratification.
Open System of Stratification :
1. Mobility is there in this type of stratification.
2. This system is quite flexible means an individual can change his group with his ability.
3. This system is not based on birth but is based on individual ability.
4. One needs to achieve status in open system of stratification.
5. Class system is best example of this type of system.