Short Questions with Answers - Understanding Social Institutions Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 11

Humanities/Arts : Short Questions with Answers - Understanding Social Institutions Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Very Short Question With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give meaning of Marriage.
Ans. In every society, sanction is given to the regularisation of sexual relations between male and female through marriage for the establishment of family. In this way, marriage is the socially approved relation of male and female which forms a new family. Marriage not only gives sanctions to the relationship of male and female but it also gives approval to many other relations.

Q. 2. Give one definition of Marriage.
Ans. 
According to Wester Mark, ‘‘Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by the institution of law, and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of parties entering the union and in the case of children born out of it.’’

Q. 3. Give two objectives of Marriage.
Ans.
(i) Marriage regulate the sexual relations of male and female.
(ii) Another objective of marriage is the upbringing of children with co-operation of both.

Q. 4. What is the
Ans.
Marriage is seen as the means of satisfaction of biological need. If sexual relations will be established without marriage, it is illegal in society and chaos will prevail in society. Even right from the beginning, marriage is known as essential for the satisfaction of sexual relations.

Q. 5. ‘‘Economic Co
Ans.
After marriage male goes out of house to earn money and gives that money to his wife so that she could run smoothly. Wife takes care of the family with that money and even tries to save some part of that money so that it could be used in future.

Q. 6. What is Endogamy?
Ans. 
Endogamy is a rule of marriage according to which person has to marry in his own caste but he is restricted to marry in his clan or with his blood relatives. It means that except his blood relatives person has to marry in his caste only. Marriage out of the caste was not sanctioned by society.

Q. 7. What do you mean by Exogamy?
Ans. 
Exogamy is also a rule of marriage. The way in which person has to marry in his caste is endogamy, in the same way man has to marry out of his clan is exogamy. Man is restricted to marry in his group, clan or with blood relatives.

Q. 8. What is meant by Gotra Exogamy?
Ans. 
In Rigveda, the meaning of gotra is that group which takes care of cows. Gradually gotras were developed. Max Muller was of the view that those people who kept their cows at one place become relatives from moral aspect and cannot marry with each other.

Q. 9. What is Spinda Exogamy?
Ans.
Meaning of spinda is the closeness of blood. In this way person with blood relations in known as spinda. Persons with same spinda cannot marry with each other.

Q. 10. What is meant by Incest taboo?
Ans.
We have many primary relatives with whom we are connected with blood relations. Restriction on sexual relations between primary relatives is known as Incest Taboo. If any one tries to break this rule, he is generally punished by society.

Q. 11. What is Monogamy?
Ans.
By monogamy we mean by that marriage in which one male marries with one female and one female marries with one male. Until the husband or wife is living or they are not separated by law they cannot marry again. This type of marriage exists in today’s society.

Q. 12. What is Polygamy?
Ans. 
When one male marries more than one female or one female marries with more than one male then it is known as polygamy. In this type of marriage number of partners is more than one. This type of marriage is restricted these days.

Q. 13. What is Polyandry?
Ans.
In this type of marriage one female can marry with many males at a time. It means one wife can have many husbands at a time. It is of two types : Fraternal and Non-Fraternal Polyandry.

Q. 14. What is meant by Fraternal Polyandry?
Ans. In this type of marriage, all the husbands of a female are brothers of each other. Eldest brother marries to a female and all the brothers are supposed to be her husbands as well. They also keep sexual relations with her.

Q. 15. What is meant by Non-Fraternal Polyandry?
Ans.
In this type of marriage, all the husbands of a female are not the brothers. In fact, they live at different places. Time is fixed for that female to live with one husband. After that time period, she goes to other husband and this process goes on.

Short Question With Answer (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give four characteristics of a family.
Ans.
(i) Universal Group : Family is a social and universal group. It is also known as the primary institution in the human history because it exists in every society and in all times. Every member of the society is definitely a member of any family.
(ii) Small in Size : Size of the family is limited because only those persons are included in the family who either have taken birth in the family or who have marital relation.
(iii) Central position in social structure : Our society is based on family and different associations are formed only from the family. That's why it has the central position in society.
(iv) Sexual relations : In a family, male establishes sexual relations with female because society gives sanction to the formation of family only after marriage.

Q. 2. What are the main functions of a family?
Ans. (a) Biological functions :
(i) Giving birth to children.
(ii) Protection of members
(iii) Arrangement of food, house and cloth
(iv) Protection of children.
(b) Social Functions :
(i) Determines the status
(ii) Socialization  
(iii) Social control
(iv) Preserving Social heritage.
(c) Economic Functions :
(i) Division of Labour
(ii) Arrangement of income
(iii) Protection of property.
(d) Giving religious education to its members.
(e) Political functions : Educating the members about their rights and duties.

Q. 3. Explain the types of family on the basis of residence.
Ans. Three types of families are there on the basis of residence :
(i) Patrilocal Family : In this type of family, wife goes to her husband's house to live after marriage.
(ii) Matrilocal Family : When husband, after marriage, goes to his wife's house to live then this type of family is known as Matrilocal family.
(iii) Neolocal Family : In Neolocal family, husband and wife makes their own new house instead of going to their parent's house.

Q. 4. How many types of Kinship are there?
Ans.
Two types of Kinship are there :
(i) Affinal Kinship : Relatives based on blood are known as blood relatives such as relation of parents with their children. Relation of father, mother, brother, sister etc. also come in this category. The relations are based upon social sanctions and biological facts. (ii) Consanguine Kinship : These types of relations are being made on the basis of marriage. Not only husband, wife come in this category but relatives of bride and bridegroom also come in it. For example Son in law, daughter in law, brother in law, sister in law etc.

Q. 5. What is the importance of Kinship System?
Ans. (i) Kinship determines the authority in the family.
(ii) Kinship system is very helpful at the time of marriage because it tells us that to which family one belong.
(iii) Relatives are very much necessary for the completion of certain rituals of Hinduism.
(iv) Person needs his relatives a lot at the time of pleasure and sorrow.

Q. 6. What do you know about categories of Kinship?
Ans. Three types of categories of Kinship there on the basis of closeness and these are :
(i) Primary Relatives : Primary relatives like husband, wife, father, son, daughter, brother, sister etc. are included in this category. We have direct relation with them. These are of 8 types.
(ii) Secondary Relatives : Those relatives with whome we are connected with the medium of our primary relatives are our Secondary relatives like brother of father Uncle, Sister of mother-aunt, father of father grandfather etc. These are of 53 types.
(iii) Tertiary Kins : Tertiary Kins are those relatives which are primary relatives of our Secondary relatives. For example son of brother of father – cousin, wife of mother's brother – aunt (maami) etc. These are of 151 types.

Q. 7. Give four important characteristics of the family.
Ans.
(i) Family is universal in nature.
(ii)  Family has some emotional base.
(iii) Family is always small in size.
(iv) Family has a nuclear position in the Social Structure.
(v) In family male establishes sexual relations with his wife.
(vi) It takes responsibility of the members.

Q. 8. Give four main functions of the family.
Ans. (i) Family satisfies the sexual needs.
(ii) Family upbrings and takes care of children.
(iii) Family gives education to children.
(iv) Family gives enjoyment to children.
(v) Family transmits culture to next generation.

Q. 9. Family is a means of Socialization. How?
Ans.
In simple words, ways of living, sentiments, philosophy, ideas, machines etc. all are material and non-material things and this is culture. All these things are produced by society and are used by it. In this way culture is that thing on which we can think, work and can keep them with us. 

Q. 10. How many types of Polyandrous Marriage are there?
Ans. Polyandrous marriage is of two types :
(i) Fraternal Polyandry : In this type of marriage, all the husbands of a female are brothers of each other. Elder brother is considered as father of children and rest of other brothers are husbands of that female. Without the permission of elder brother, they cannot establish sexual relations with their wife.
(ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry : In this type of marriage, all the husbands of a female are not the brothers. Instead they live at different places. Female goes to one husband to live for a fixed time period. After that period she goes to another husband.

Q. 11. Give main features of Hindu Marriage.
Ans.
(i) One of the main feature of Hindu marriage is that it is considered as a religious sacrament because one is required to complete many rituals to do the marriage.
(ii) Another feature of Hindu marriage is that its main objective is to obey religious duties. With these duties, person is required to do some sacrifices (Yagyas). He does this type of marriage even to pay his debts.
(iii) One of another feature of Hindu Marriage is that it is endogamous means an individual is required to marry within his own caste but marriage should be done out of Gotra and Spinda.

Q. 12. What is Child Marriage? How could it be stopped?
Ans. Government has fixed age for marriage which is 21 years for boys and 18 years for girls. If any one is married before this age then it is known as child marriage. We can stop this type of marriage through many methods. If children could be given proper education then they can easily go beyond this fixed age and then child marriage will not take place. Child marriages could also be stopped by eliminating dowry system from the society. This custom could also stopped by doing propaganda against this.

Q. 13. Which rules of marriage prevail in our society?
Ans.
(i) Endogamy : In this type of marriage, one is required to marry within his own caste. There is a fixed area of marriage and one is required to marry within this sphere.
(ii) Exogamy : In this type of marriage, one is required to marry out of his gotra, spinda and totam. Main objective of this type of marriage is to restrict individuals to not to marry with blood relatives.
(iii) Incest Taboos : Meaning of Incest taboos is that marital relations cannot be established with primary relatives because no where marriage takes place between father-daughter, brother-sister, mother-son etc.

Q. 14. Which type of Exogamy marriage prevail in our society?
Ans. 
(i) Gotra Exogamy : In this type of marriage, one is required to marry out of his gotra because members of same gotra are considered as brothers and sisters.
(ii) Pravar Exogamy : Meaning of Pravar is that who perform sacrifices. That’s why one who pays for sacrifice and one who does sacrifices cannot establish marital relations with each other.
(iii) Spinda Exogamy : Meaning of spinda is the children of same ancestor and individuals with same spinda are blood relatives. So they cannot establish marital relations with each other.
(iv) Village Exogamy : People of same village are considered as brothers and sisters and they cannot establish marital relations.

Q. 15. Give merits of Endogamy.
Ans. (i) One of the main advantage of endogamy is that after doing marriage within caste, the purity of blood is maintained.
(ii) Property of the group is protected by doing marriage within the group because then it will not be shared with other group.
(iii) Females of same culture comes in family with this marriage and it leads to good balance of relations within the family.
(iv) When females belong to same culture then there is no problem of maintaining balance within them. Females remain happy with this.
(v) Unity of the group is maintained with this type of marriage.

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