Short Q & A :
Q1: Who was Maharaja Ranjit Singh?
Ans : Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire and was also known as Sher-e-Punjab. In the late eighteenth century, the Sikh territories were extended from the Indus to the Jamuna but they were divided under different rulers. Maharaja Ranjit Singh reunited all groups and established his capital at Lahore in 1799.
Q2: Who were the backbone of the Maratha army?
Ans : Kunbis were groups of highly mobile, peasant pastoralists. They were the backbone of the Maratha army.
Q3: Name the three prominent states that emerged after the decline of the Mughal empire.
Ans : The three prominent states were Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad. All these states were founded by members of the high Mughal nobility who were governors in the Mughal empire - Sa'adat Khan (Awadh), Murshid Quli Khan (Bengal) and Asaf Jah (Hyderabad.
Q4: Explain the reasons for the decline of Mughal Empire?
The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to combination of factors:
Q5: Write short notes on the three groups in the states of eighteenth century?
The states of the eighteenth century can be divided into three overlapping groups:
Q6: Name the states with which the state of Hyderabad was in struggle?
Ans : The state of Hyderabad was constantly in struggle against the Marathas in the west and with independent Telugu warrior chief known as Nayakas of the Deccan plateau.
Q7: State few common features of the states in the eighteenth century.
Ans : Though many of the larger states were established by erstwhile Mughal nobles, they were highly suspicious of some of the administrative systems that they had inherited, in particular the jagirdari system. Secondly, they reduced the number of jagirdars appointed by the Mughals. Rather than relying upon them, all the states contracted with revenue-farmers for the collection of revenue. The third common feature in all these regional states was their emerging relationship with rich bankers and merchants.
Q8: When did Khalsa declare its sovereign rule and mint its own coin?
Ans : Khalsa declared its sovereign rule and minted its own coin in 1765. The legend on the obverse bore the same inscription 'Deg o Tegh o Fateh' issued by Banda Bahadur on his coins.
Q9: Who ruled the Maratha kingdom after the death of Shivaji?
Ans : After the death of Shivaji, the Maratha kingdom was ruled by a family of Chitpavan Brahmanas. They served Shivaji's successors as Peshwa or principle minister and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha Empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. During their rein, the Maratha Empire reached its zenith ruling most of the Indian Subcontinent.
Q10: What were jathas?
Ans : Jatha in the Sikh tradition signifies a group of volunteers coming forth to carry out a specific task, be it an armed combat or a peaceful agitation. After the capture and execution of Banda Singh Bahadur, the Sikhs organised themselves into a number of bands called jathas, to fight against the oppressors. Each jatha was grouped around a jathedar or a leader. These jathas were finally reorganized on the Baisakhi of 1748 into 11 misls. The entire fighting force of the Sikhs was named Dal Khalsa.
Q11: What was the gurmatas?
Ans : It is the counsel or resolution adopted by the combined forces of the Sikhs known as dal Khalsa, at an assembly at Amritsar to take collective decisions known as "resolutions of the Guru" in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib. A gurmata may only be passed on a subject that affects the fundamental principles of Sikh religion and is binding upon all Sikhs.
Q12: What was the rakhi system?
Ans : The word rakhi literally means 'protection'. In practice, it was a tribute received by the combined forces of the Sikhs dal Khalsa for the protection provided or guaranteed by them against external aggression to the cultivators paying it. The cultivators had to pay a tax of 20 percent of the produce to the Sikhs of dal Khalsa for their protection.
Q13: Who supported Marathas to face the Mughals?
Ans : The Maratha kingdom was another powerful regional kingdom to arise out of a sustained opposition to Mughal rule. They faced the threat of the Mughals. To overcome them, they took the help of powerful warrior families known as deshmukhs. The Kunbis or peasant pastoralists rallied round Shivaji in large number to raise their status in social hierarchy and formed the backbone of the Maratha army. Shivaji used this army to challenge the Mughals in the peninsula.
Q14: List the developments of Maratha kingdom under the Peshwa?
Ans : Under the Peshwas, the Maratha kingdom developed as a very successful military organisation. They built strong forts to face the Mughals. Between 1720 and 1761, the Maratha Empire expanded. It gradually occupied the parts of the Mughal Empire. Malwa and Gujarat were seized from the Mughals by 1720s. By the 1730s, the Maratha kingdom was enjoying complete domination in the entire Deccan.
Q15: What were the steps taken by Murshid Quli Khan take to reduce Mughal influence in Bengal?
The steps taken by Murshid Quli Khan to reduce the Mughal influence in Bengal were as follows -
Q16: Who was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan? How did he try to decrease the Mughal influence in the Awadh region?
Ans : Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan was appointed as the subadar of Awadh in 1722. Later on he carved out an independent state of Awadh from the Mughal empire. Burhan-ul-Mulk tried to decrease Mughal influence in the Awadh region by:
Q17: What was the impact of Nadir Shah's invasion on Delhi?
Ans : Nadir shah's invasion had a deep impact on Delhi
Q18: How did Guru Gobind Singh inspire the Khalsa?
Ans : Guru Gobind Singh had inspired the Khalsa with the faith that their destiny was to rule (raj karega khalsa).
Q19: Why did the peasants and zamindars revolted in many parts of northern and western India?]
Ans : Because of following reason:
Q20: Write a short note on administration of Marathas.
Ans : Marathas developed an effective administration system, which they had inherited from Shivaji.Maratha chiefs were known as Sardars. The land revenue was main source of income. Land revenue though was fixed on survey and assessment but it was feudal in nature. Territories were divided on the basis of revenue. Territories not under their direct control paid Chauth (1/4 revenue). In return they got the protection from attacks by Marathas. The territories who paid Sardeshmukhi (1/10 of land revenue) got protection by other forces.
Q21: List one factor that led to crisis in the Mughal Empire in the closing years of seventeenth century.
Ans : Emperor Aurangzeb had depleted the military and financial resources of his empire by fighting a long war in the Deccan. It led to crisis in the Mughal Empire in the closing years of 17th century.
Long Q & A:
Q1: When did Sikhs emerge as a stronger community?
Ans : Sikhs became political community during seventeenth century. The Khalsa sought to defend the Sikh community from oppression by Mughal rulers. Sikh fought with Mughal officials. Under Guru Govind Singh, they fought several battles against Mughal rulers. After the death of Guru Govind Singh, Banda Bahadur established the Sikh rule and administration over territory between Sutlej & Jamuna.
Q2: What were the different overlapping group of states that emerged in the 18th Century after the decline of the Mughal Empire?
Ans : Through the eighteenth century, the Mughal Empire gradually fragmented into a number of independent, regional states. Broadly speaking the states of the eighteenth century can be divided into three overlapping groups: